We analyzed the bacteria in a culture grown with 3,4-dihydroxypyr

We analyzed the bacteria in a culture grown with 3,4-dihydroxypyridine by PCR-DGGE (Figure 6A). The culture completely degraded 3,4-dihydroxypyridine during 4 days of cultivation. Among the dominant bacteria, strain 4AP-A grew well in the 3,4-dihydroxypyridine medium and completely degraded 3,4-dihydroxypyridine during 3 days of cultivation. Strain 4AP-G grew slowly and degraded the substrate in 7 days. In the DGGE gels, several bands, including that of strain 4AP-A, were present; the band corresponding to strain 4AP-Y was absent; and a new band appeared. The sequence Wortmannin clinical trial of the 16S rRNA gene of the bacterium corresponding to the new band, strain 4AP-Z, showed a high level of identity with

those of Elizabethkingia spp. (GU084120 and AY468482). We also analyzed the bacteria in a culture grown with formate by PCR-DGGE (Figure 6B). In the DGGE gels, several bands, including that of strain Y, were present. Figure 6 DGGE profiles of the enrichment culture grown in medium containing 4-aminopyridine, 3,4-dihydroxypyridine, or formate. The enrichment culture grown in medium containing 4-aminopyridine

was used to inoculate medium Selleckchem AZD0156 containing 0.9 mM 3,4-dihydroxypyridine or 2.13 mM formate and 0.43 mM ammonium chloride. The culture was incubated and subcultured in fresh medium twice before DGGE analysis. (A) The standard amplified fragments from strains 4AP-A, 4AP-B, 4AP-C, 4AP-D, 4AP-E, 4AP-F, and 4AP-G were loaded in lane M. Lane 1, culture grown in medium

containing 4-aminopyridine; lane 2, culture grown in medium containing 3,4-dihydroxypyridine. (B) The standard amplified fragments from the seven strains; lane 1, culture grown in medium containing formate and ammonium chloride; lane 2, culture grown in medium in the this website absence of formate. Extraction of genomic DNA and preparation of DGGE samples were carried out about in triplicate. Prominent DNA bands from the DGGE gels were extracted and used as PCR templates as described in the text. Discussion The pyridine-ring hydroxylation step is one of main initial steps in the degradation of pyridines [4]. Our analyses of the accumulated metabolites from 4-aminopyridine and the growth substrate specificity suggested that 4-aminopyridine was converted to 4-amino-3-hydroxypyridine and 3,4-dihydroxypyridine (Figure 1). We hypothesized that 4-hydroxypyridine is another possible metabolite based on the previously reported metabolic pathways of pyridines [3]. The enrichment culture could not degrade 4-amino-3-hydroxypyridine and 4-hydroxypyridine, even when 4-aminopyridine was added to the medium. Therefore, 4-amino-3-hydroxypyridine must be a dead-end product. In the enrichment culture, 4-aminopyridine probably would be directly converted to 3,4-dihydroxypyridine mainly by dehydroxylation and the release of ammonia (Figure 1), similar to the conversion of aniline to benzenediol (catechol) by a dioxygenase [27].

J Cell Mol Med 2010, 14:1693–1706 PubMedCrossRef 35 Robertson FM

J Cell Mol Med 2010, 14:1693–1706.PubMedCrossRef 35. Robertson FM, Simeone AM, Lucci A, McMurray JS, Ghosh S, Cristofanilli M: Differential regulation of the aggressive phenotype of inflammatory breast cancer cells by prostanoid receptors EP3 and EP4. Cancer 2010, 116:2806–2814.PubMedCrossRef 36. Basu GD, Liang WS, Stephan DA, Wegener LT, Conley CR, Pockaj BA, Mukherjee P: A novel role for cyclooxygenase-2 in regulating vascular channel formation by human breast cancer cells. Breast find more Cancer Res 2006, 8:R69.PubMedCrossRef 37. Hoffmeyer MR, Wall KM, Dharmawardhane SF: In

vitro analysis of the invasive phenotype of SUM 149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line. Cancer Cell Int 2005, 5:11.PubMedCrossRef 38. Shirakawa K, Furuhata S, Watanabe I, Hayase H, Shimizu A, Ikarashi Y, Yoshida T, Terada M, Hashimoto D, Wakasugi H: Induction of vasculogenesis in breast cancer models. Br J Cancer 2002, 87:1454–1461.PubMedCrossRef 39. Hess AR, Seftor EA, Seftor RE, Hendrix MJ: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates membrane Type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and MMP-2 activity during melanoma cell vasculogenic mimicry. Cancer Res selleck 2003, 63:4757–4762.PubMed 40.

Sood AK, Fletcher MS, Hendrix MJ: The embryonic-like properties of aggressive human tumor cells. J Soc Gynecol Investig 2002, 9:2–9.PubMedCrossRef 41. Sood AK, Seftor EA, Fletcher MS, Gardner LM, Heidger PM, Buller RE, Seftor RE, Hendrix MJ: Molecular determinants of ovarian cancer plasticity. Am J Pathol 2001, 158:1279–1288.PubMedCrossRef 42. Seftor EA, Meltzer PS, Kirschmann DA, Margaryan NV, Seftor RE, Hendrix MJ: The epigenetic reprogramming of poorly aggressive melanoma cells by a metastatic microenvironment. J Cell Mol Med 2006, 10:174–196.PubMedCrossRef 43. Robertson GP: Mig-7 linked to vasculogenic mimicry. American Journal of SRT2104 manufacturer Pathology 2007, 170:1454–1456.PubMedCrossRef Methane monooxygenase 44. Petty AP, Garman KL, Winn VD, Spidel CM, Lindsey JS: Overexpression of carcinoma and embryonic cytotrophoblast cell-specific Mig-7 induces invasion and vessel-like structure formation. Am

J Pathol 2007, 170:1763–1780.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions W Sun and YZ Fan were responsible for data collection and analysis, experiment job, interpretation of the results, and writing the manuscript. W Sun carried out the Invasion assay and three-dimensional culture of GBC-SD and SGC-996 cells in vitro. WZ Zhang and CY Ge carried out the nude mouse xenografts of GBC-SD and SGC-996 cells. W Sun and WZ Zhang were responsible for the existence of VM in GBC by using immunohistochemistry staining, TEM and micro-MRA technology in vitro and in vivo, respectively. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease of considerable social and economic burden.

Metamorph Imaging System software was used to run the microscope

Metamorph Imaging System software was used to run the microscope and obtain the images (Universal Imaging Corp., Pennsylvanian). Immunolocalization reagents Primary antibodies consisted of a mouse monoclonal anti-β-Spectrin II (used at 2.5 μg/ml for immunofluorescence, 0.025 μg/ml for westerns) (ALK inhibitor Becton Dickinson), a rabbit anti-α-adducin (used at 2 μg/ml for immunofluorescence and 0.02 μg/ml for westerns) (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), rabbit anti-EPB41 (protein 4.1) (used at 1.7 μg/ml for immunofluorescence

and 0.017 μg/ml for westerns)(Sigma Aldrich), and rabbit anti-calnexin (Becton Dickinson) (used at 1:2000). Secondary antibodies included goat anti-mouse or anti-rabbit GW-572016 ic50 antibodies conjugated to AlexaFluor 568 or 594 (used at 0.02 μg/ml) (Invitrogen). For F-actin staining

AlexaFluor 488 conjugated phalloidin (Invitrogen) was used at a 1:10 dilution for 7 minutes, according to the manufacturers instructions. DNA was visualized using the mounting medium Prolong Gold with DAPI (Invitrogen). Transfection of siRNA and confirmation of knockdowns via western blots Pools of 4 targeted siRNAs were used simultaneously to independently knockdown β-Spectrin II, protein 4.1, α-adducin [20]. A control pool of 4 non-targeting siRNAs (Dharmacon) was used to control for off target learn more effects. All transfections were performed using the InterferIN transfection reagent (PolyPlus Transfection), over a period of 48 hours, according to the manufactures instructions. The media was changed to standard DMEM with 10% FBS prior to the infections. Western blots were performed to confirm successful knockdown as outlined previously [20]. For assays that used siRNA-treated cells, the coverslips were examined microscopically, initially for cells that had complete knockdown of the protein of interest, then the number of bacteria in the cells were assessed by first confirming the bacteria were inside of the cells by scanning the samples from top to bottom and acquiringZ-stacks. Statistics Statistical analysis involved a 1-way ANOVA analysis, with Dunnett’s post-hoc test, to compare each

data set to the control group. When we compared data sets directly, we used a non-parametric student t-test. Acknowledgements Funding was provided by CIHR and NSERC. AEL is a CIHR CGS and a MSFHR 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase awardee and JAG is a CIHR New Investigator. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Figure S1 Modified Figure 1 with brightened actin. A modified version of Figure 1 with the actin levels brightened to show the actin in other regions of the host cell. This figure exemplifies how concentrated actin is at the site of S. flexneri infection. Scale bar is 5 μm (JPEG 532 KB) Additional file 2: Figure S2 RNAi images of S. flexneri infections showing non-transfected cells next to cells with near complete knockdown of spectrin, p4.1, or adducin. Spectrin, adducin, or p4.1 were knocked-down in HeLa cells prior to infection with S. flexneri for 1.

Dr Sheu BS and Dr Wu JJ coordinated the conduct of the whole st

Dr. Sheu BS and Dr. Wu JJ coordinated the conduct of the whole study and made interpretation of data. Chiang WC, Kao CY and Wu HM conducted the acquisition of data. Dr. Yang HB reviewed the pathology. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Diarrhoeal diseases have been and continue to be a cause of mortality and morbidity, especially in developing countries. Of particular note is the disease cholera, a severe watery diarrhoeal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. V. cholerae is a diverse species of Gram negative bacilli. Serological testing has enabled

strains of V. cholerae to be divided into over Selleck BGB324 200 serogroups based on the O-antigen present [1]. However, only the O1 and O139 serogroups have been known to cause pandemic and epidemic level disease [2]. Since 1817, seven pandemics of cholera have been recorded [3]. The ongoing epidemic started in 1961 and has affected almost every continent,

particularly countries of Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America. Cholera remains endemic in developing countries and outbreaks still pose a significant public health issue [4]. The developments of DNA based typing methods have allowed epidemiological studies of cholera. Methods such as Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis [5, 6], Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism [7] as well as population structure studies including Multi-Locus Sequence Typing [8–10] have all been applied to V. cholerae isolates. Such methods have all been able to distinguish www.selleckchem.com/products/chir-98014.html between environmental and clinical strains of V. cholerae[6, 8, 11], but they have had limited success in drawing evolutionary relationships between 7th pandemic strains. Previously, we

investigated the evolution of V. cholerae using oxyclozanide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis and found that 7th pandemic V. cholerae isolates could be distinguished into groups with a stepwise accumulation of SNPs. The 7th pandemic SNP relationships were confirmed by a large genome sequencing based study by Mutreja et al. [12]. SNP Groups were correlated with the spread of pandemic cholera into Africa and were also able to separate the O139 isolates into a distinct SNP profile [13]. However, further resolution of isolates within each group is required. Multilocus variable number tandem https://www.selleckchem.com/EGFR(HER).html repeat analysis (MLVA) is a PCR based typing method based on regions of tandemly repeated short DNA sequence elements. Variations in the number of copies of repeat DNA sequences form the basis of differentiation [14]. Recent studies have shown that MLVA is a highly discriminating method for the typing of environmental and clinical isolates of V. cholerae and is able to differentiate closely related isolates from outbreak situations [15, 16]. In this report, we applied MLVA to isolates spanning the 7th pandemic to further determine the genetic and evolutionary relationships within the 7th pandemic clone and to evaluate the potential of MLVA as a long term epidemiological typing tool.

Based on the alignment and NJ trees, short or identical sequences

Based on the alignment and NJ trees, short or identical sequences were individually removed, and the same procedure was repeated until a balanced dataset containing

111 sequences representing all major nematode taxonomic groups were identified. The dataset was subjected to phylogenetic reconstructions by Bayesian inference (BI) using SB202190 mouse MrBayes (version 3.2) (http://​mrbayes.​sourceforge.​net) and the maximum likelihood (ML) method using TreeFinder (version 2008) (http://​www.​treefinder.​de) [17, 18]. This approach determined the phylogenetic relationships among major taxonomic groups, in which O. petrowi was placed within the spirurians, but the relationship among spirurians was not well resolved.

Therefore, we resampled the sequences to include only taxa within Spirurida and Ascaridida as these two groups displayed a sister relationship by this study and previous analyses [19, 20]. This also allowed us to include more taxa within these two groups. The second dataset contained 112 taxa with 1,544 nucleotide positions MEK inhibitor clinical trial and was subjected to phylogenetic reconstructions using BI and ML methods. To further resolve the O. petrowi position, we also compiled a third dataset containing only taxa with close relationship with O. petrowi. This small dataset included only 35 taxa with 1,599 nucleotide positions, and was also subjected to BI and ML analyses. In all datasets, gaps were removed and only positions that could be unambiguously aligned were used in subsequent phylogenetic analyses. In the BI Wnt inhibitor analysis, 1.5 million generations of searches for the first and second datasets (or 1.0 million generations for the smaller third dataset) were performed with 4 independent chains running. Searches reached convergence as determined by the average standard deviation (SD) of split

frequencies reaching < 0.01, and Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase potential scale reduction factor (PSRF) values for various approaching 1.0 [21]. Bootstrapping ML analyses were derived from 200 replicated sequences. In both BI and ML methods, the general time reversal (GTR) nucleotide substitution model was used with the consideration of fraction of invariance and 4-rate of discrete gamma (i.e., GTR + F inv  + Γ 4 ). Majority rule consensus trees were visualized using FigTree (version 1.4), followed by tree annotations using Adobe Illustrator CS4. Molecular detection of O. petrowi Sequence comparison of the rRNA regions between O. petrowi and other nematodes indicated that 18S rRNA sequences were less suitable for designing species-specific primers, as they were highly conserved among nematodes. We hence designed primers based on the ITS2 region sequences for specific molecular detection for O. petrowi: QEW_2417F (5’-GGA TTT GCA AGA ATT GTT TCC-3’) and QEW_2578R (5’-AAC GTT ATT GTT GCC ATA TGC-3’) with a predicted product size of 162 bp.

Isolates from the National Wine and Grape Industry Centre (Charle

Isolates from the National Wine and Grape Industry Centre (Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia) collected in previous surveys (Pitt et al. 2010) were also used in this study. The geographic origin and host range of the

specimens collected during this study are summarized in Table 1. Table 1 Isolates collected for this study and used either in the morphological or phylogenetic studies Collection number Species Host Origin Collector/Isolator CBS accession no. DAR accession no. ITS rDNA GenBank accession no. β-tubulin GenBank accession no. NSW05PO ª Cryptosphaeria sp. Populus balsamifera Khancoban, New South Wales F.P. Trouillas     HQ692618 HQ692508 B10-16Aª Cryptovalsa ampelina Vitis vinifera South Australia M.R. Sosnowski/A. Loschiavo     HQ692547 HQ692472 ADSC200 C. ampelina Schinus molle var. areira #Lazertinib cell line randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# Adelaide, South Australia F.P. Trouillas     HQ692546 HQ692458 AD100 C. ampelina Vitis vinifera South Australia F.P. Trouillas     HQ692551 HQ692468 C14A ª C. ampelina Vitis vinifera South Australia M.R. Sosnowski/A. Loschiavo     HQ692550 HQ692473 C17A ª C. ampelina Vitis vinifera South Australia M.R. Sosnowski/A. Loschiavo     HQ692549 HQ692474 B2-15Aª C. ampelina Vitis vinifera South Australia M.R. Sosnowski/A. Loschiavo     HQ692548 HQ692471 https://www.selleckchem.com/products/sch-900776.html RGA05 ª C. ampelina Fraxinus angustifolia Adelaide hills, South Australia F.P. Trouillas     HQ692552 HQ692475

ABA100 C. ampelina Fraxinus angustifolia Barossa Valley, South Australia F.P. Trouillas     HQ692540

HQ692470 AH01 C. ampelina Acer macrophyllum Adelaide Hills, South Australia F.P. Trouillas     HQ692553 HQ692469 SAPN03 C. ampelina Populus nigra ‘italica’ McLaren Flat, South Australia F.P. Trouillas     HQ692555 HQ692461 TUUP01 C. ampelina Ulmus procera Tumbarumba, New South Wales F.P. Trouillas     HQ692543 HQ692463 HVVIT04 C. ampelina Vitis vinifera Hunter Valley, New South Wales F.P. Trouillas     HQ692558 HQ692459 CSU01 C. ampelina Pistacia vera Wagga Wagga, New South Wales F.P. Trouillas     HQ692539 HQ692476 DO2 ª C. ampelina Avelestat (AZD9668) Vitis vinifera Murrambateman, New South Wales W.M. Pitt     HQ692541 HQ692467 DO4 ª C. ampelina Vitis vinifera Murrambateman, New South Wales W.M. Pitt     HQ692542 HQ692464 DO6 ª C. ampelina Vitis vinifera Murrambateman, New South Wales W.M. Pitt     HQ692554 HQ692465 KC6 ª C. ampelina Vitis vinifera Book Book, New South Wales W.M. Pitt     HQ692557 HQ692466 SH20 ª C. ampelina Vitis vinifera Murrumbateman, New South Wales F.P. Trouillas     HQ692556 HQ692460 VR4 ª C. ampelina Vitis vinifera Canowindra, New South Wales F.P. Trouillas     HQ692544 HQ692462 CV9 ª C. ampelina Vitis vinifera Orange, New South Wales F.P. Trouillas     HQ692545 HQ692477 WA07CO Cryptovalsa rabenhorstii Vitis vinifera Cowaramup, Western Australia F.P. Trouillas CBS128338 DAR81041 HQ692620 HQ692522 WA08CB C. rabenhorstii Vitis vinifera Cowaramup, Western Australia F.P.

Figure 1a shows the schematics of the simulated unit of the propo

Figure 1a shows the Selleckchem Vactosertib schematics of the simulated unit of the proposed hybrid solar cells, which comprised vertically

aligned Si NWA coated with conformal thin layer of P3HT on supporting Si substrate. The simulated region of FDTD is represented by a dashed frame, in which perfect match layer (PML) boundary conditions as well as source are signed. Meanwhile, as shown in Figure 1b, a more realistic condition, under which the Si NWA structure is fully infiltrated with P3HT, is also considered. The refractive indexes of silicon and P3HT used in this simulation selleck chemicals are shown in Figure 1c,d. The parameters of this structure are the period of the square lattice P, Si core NWs diameter D, NW’s height H, and organic shell thickness T. By placing the periodic boundary conditions, the simulations were carried out in a unit cell to model the periodic square-array wire selleck products structure with substrate. In our simulation, the optimized geometry of silicon NWs on

flat Si substrate was fixed as P = 500 nm, D (SI) = 250 nm, and H = 5 μm [14]. It has been confirmed that the Si NWA with this structure as mentioned has the most efficient light absorption. In order to simplify the calculation, the Si thin film is assumed infinitely thick with no transmission loss by using a PML adjacent underneath the Si film. Note that the transmission sensor was set at the bottom of Si NWA. Hence, the optical characteristics we discussed in the following Cell press sections are related to NWA (or P3HT/Si NWA). The absorption in the bottom Si substrate is not included. Meanwhile, the optical generation rates and ultimate photocurrents were also achieved to give an optical optimization and analysis of the proposed hybrid P3HT/Si NWA structure. Figure 1 Unit of P3HT/Si NWA hybrid solar cells and refractive indexes of silicon and P3HT. (a) Simulated unit of P3HT/Si NWA hybrid solar cells modeled in this study: conformal coating. (b) Simulated unit of P3HT/Si NWA hybrid solar cells modeled in this study:

full-infiltrated. (c) Refractive index of silicon. (d) Refractive index of P3HT. Results and discussion Figure 2a,b,c show the optical properties of P3HT/Si NWA hybrid system with various coating thicknesses of P3HT. As shown in Figure 2c, in the shorter wavelength region (<650 nm), one can find that the absorption of the P3HT/Si NWA system increases strongly as the thickness of the organic shell is increased. The absorptance of the NW/organic array reaches a maximum at the coating thickness of 80 nm. Further increasing the shell thickness will cause decrease of absorption, which is attributed to reflectance enhancement (Figure 2a) at this wavelength region. Due to the increase of photoactive material, the addition of organic coating can further decrease the transmission of P3HT/Si NWA structure in this wavelength region (Figure 2b).

Nat Mater 2009, 8:543–557 CrossRef 22 Phenrat T, Kim HJ, Fagerlu

Nat Mater 2009, 8:543–557.CrossRef 22. Phenrat T, Kim HJ, Fagerlund F, Illangasekare T, Tilton RD, Lowry GV: Particle size distribution, concentration, and magnetic attraction Belinostat affect transport of polymer-modified Fe 0 nanoparticles in sand columns. Environ Sci Technol 2009, 43:5079–5085.CrossRef 23. Goon IY, Lai LMH, Lim M, Munroe P, Gooding JJ, Amal R: Fabrication and

dispersion of gold-shell-protected magnetite nanoparticles: systematic control using polyethyleneimine. Chem Mater 2009, 21:673–681.CrossRef 24. Takahashi selleck K, Kato H, Saito T, Matsuyama S, Kinugasa S: Precise measurement of the size of nanoparticles by dynamic light scattering with uncertainty analysis. Part Part Syst Charact 2008, 25:31–38.CrossRef 25. Goldburg WI: Dynamic light scattering. Am J Phys 1999, 67:1152–1160.CrossRef 26. Chatterjee J, Haik Y, Chen CJ: Size dependent magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. J Magn Magn Mater 2003, 257:113–118.CrossRef 27. DiPietro RS, Johnson HG, Bennett SP,

Nummy TJ, Lewis LH: Determining magnetic nanoparticle size distributions www.selleckchem.com/products/poziotinib-hm781-36b.html from thermomagnetic measurements. Appl Phys Lett 2010, 96:222506.CrossRef 28. Silva LP, Lacava ZGM, Buske N, Morais PC, Azevedo RB: Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy of biocompatible magnetic fluids: a comparative analysis. J Nanopart Res 2004, 6:209–213.CrossRef 29. Dukhin AS, Goetz PJ: Acoustic and electroacoustic spectroscopy. Langmuir 1996, 12:4336–4344.CrossRef 30. Chantrell RW, Wohlfarth EP: Rate dependent of the field-cooled magnetisation of a fine particle system. Phys Status Solidi A 1985, 91:619–626.CrossRef 31. El-Hilo M, O’Grady K, Chantrell RW: Susceptibility phenomena in a fine particle system: I. Concentration dependence of peak. J Magn Magn Mater 1992, 114:295–306.CrossRef 32.

Jans H, Liu X, Austin L-NAME HCl L, Maes G, Huo Q: Dynamic light scattering as a powerful tool for gold nanoparticle bioconjugation and biomolecular binding studies. Anal Chem 2009, 81:9425–9432.CrossRef 33. Ando K, Chiba A, Tanoue H: Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of submicron MnAs ferromagnets in GaAs semiconductors. Appl Phys Lett 1998, 73:387.CrossRef 34. Lacava LM, Lacava BM, Azevedo RB, Lacava ZGM, Buske N, Tronconi AL, Morais PC: Nanoparticles sizing: a comparative study using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and ferromagnetic resonance. J Magn Magn Mater 2001, 225:79–83.CrossRef 35. Dukhin AS, Goetz PJ, Fang X, Somasundaran P: Monitoring nanoparticles in the presence of larger particles in liquids using acoustics and electron microscopy. J Colloid Interface Sci 2010, 342:18–25.CrossRef 36. Van de Hulst HC: Light Scattering by Small Particles. New York: Dover Publications; 1981. 37. Hiemenz PC, Rajagopalan R: Principles of Colloid and Surface Chemistry. 3rd edition. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1997. 38. Berne BJ, Pecora R: Dynamic Light Scattering: With Applications to Chemistry, Biology and Physics. New York: Dover Publications; 2000.

Also, very few studies indicated that In-rich InAlN films were gr

Also, very few studies indicated that In-rich InAlN films were grown on Si substrate using radio-frequency selleckchem metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MOMBE), although InAlN films often were grown by MOCVD and MBE methods. Compared with the MOCVD method, the RF-MOMBE technique generally has the advantage of a low growth temperature for obtaining epitaxial nitride films [19, 20]. Also, our previous study indicated that the RF-MOMBE growth temperature for InN-related alloys was lower than the MOCVD growth temperature [21]. In this paper, the InAlN films were grown on Si(100) by RF-MOMBE with various trimethylindium/trimethylaluminum (TMIn/TMAl) flow ratios. Structural properties and surface

morphology are characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical properties of all InAlN films were also investigated by an ultraviolet/visible/infrared

(UV/Vis/IR) reflection spectrophotometer with integrating sphere. Methods Highly c-axis-oriented InAlN films were deposited on Si(100) substrate using RF-MOMBE. The RF-MOMBE growth chamber was evacuated to a base pressure of 5 × 10-9 Torr HSP phosphorylation by a turbomolecular pump. TMIn and TMAl without any carrier gas were used for group III precursor. The active nitrogen radicals were supplied by a radio-frequency plasma source (13.56 MHz). TMAl and TMIn precursors were kept at room temperature and 55°C, respectively. By changing the TMIn/TMAl flow ratio from 1.29 to 1.63 under a constant nitrogen supply with a flow rate of 0.7 sccm and an RF plasma power of 400 W, InAlN films were grown at 530°C for 1 h to investigate the effect of the V/III ratio. The Si(100) substrates were cleaned in a wet bench using Radio Corporation of America (RCA) processes for about 30 min. Also,

the substrate followed wet etch in buffered oxide etch (BOE) for 30 s, and then into the growth chamber for InAlN growth. Prior to InAlN growth, Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 the Si substrate in base pressure (5 × 10-9 Torr) was heated at 650°C for 10 min for substrate surface cleaning. After, the substrate temperature was decreased to 530°C for all InAlN film growth. During the deposition, the substrate temperature was monitored by a thermocouple (contact with heater backside). The growth sequence of the unit cells of TMIn/TMAl is described in Tucidinostat cost Figure  1a. There are three unit cells; 10-s pulses of TMIn, 10-s pulse of TMAl, and normal open of atomic nitrogen were introduced alternately into the growth chamber. Figure  1b shows the optical emission spectrum of the nitrogen RF plasma with a nitrogen pressure of 7 × 10-6 Torr in the growth chamber. It is notable that there are a number of emission peaks associated with molecular and atomic nitrogen transitions that appear in this spectrum.

J Phys Chem C 2008,112(3):654–658 CrossRef 20 Ding Y, Alias H, W

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conductivity enhancement for nanofluids containing graphene nanosheets. Phys Lett A 2011,375(10):1323–1328.CrossRef 24. Novoselov K, Geim AK, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA: Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 2004,306(5696):666–669.CrossRef 25. Mehrali M, Tahan Latibari S, Mehrali M, Metselaar HSC, Silakhori M: Shape-stabilized phase change

materials with high thermal conductivity based on paraffin/graphene oxide composite. Energy Convers Manag 2013, 67:275–282.CrossRef Selleck HDAC inhibitor 26. Mehrali M, Tahan Latibari S, Mehrali M, Mahlia TMI, Metselaar HSC, Naghavi MS, Sadeghinezhad E, Akhiani AR: Preparation and characterization of palmitic acid/graphene nanoplatelets composite with remarkable thermal conductivity as a novel shape-stabilized phase change material. Appl Therm Eng 2013,61(3):633–640.CrossRef 27. Fang X, Fan LW, Ding Q, Wang X, Yao XL, Hou JF, Yu ZT, Cheng GH, Hu YC, Cen KF: Increased diglyceride thermal conductivity of eicosane-based composite phase change materials in the presence of graphene nanoplatelets. Energy Fuel 2013,27(7):4041–4047.CrossRef 28. Hwang Y, Lee JK, Lee JK, Jeong YM, Cheong SI, Ahn YC, Kim SH: Production and dispersion stability of nanoparticles in nanofluids. Powder Technol 2008,186(2):145–153.CrossRef

29. Vandsburger L: Synthesis and covalent surface modification of carbon nanotubes for preparation of stabilized nanofluid suspensions. McGill University, Department of Chemical Engineering; 2009. Master’s thesis 30. Nabeel Rashin M, Hemalatha J: Synthesis and viscosity studies of novel ecofriendly ZnO–coconut oil nanofluid. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 2013, 51:312–318.CrossRef 31. Ramires ML, de Castro CA N, Nagasaka Y, Nagashima A, Assael MJ, Wakeham WA: Standard reference data for the thermal conductivity of water. J Phys Chem Ref Data 1995, 24:1377–1381.CrossRef 32. Kole M, Dey TK: Enhanced thermophysical properties of copper nanoparticles dispersed in gear oil. Appl Therm Eng 2013,56(1–2):45–53.CrossRef 33. Yu W, Choi S: The role of interfacial layers in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids: a renovated Maxwell model. J Nanoparticle Res 2003,5(1–2):167–171.CrossRef 34.