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typing of Streptococcus uberis provides MX69 sensitive and epidemiologically relevant subtype information and reveals positive selection in the virulence gene pauA. J Clin Microbiol 2005,43(5):2407–2417.PubMedCrossRef 96. Katoh K, Misawa K, Kuma K, Miyata T: MAFFT: a novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast Fourier transform. Nucleic Acids Res 2002,30(14):3059–3066.PubMedCrossRef 97. Rozas J, Sánchez-DelBarrio J, Messegyer X, Rozas R: DNASP, DNA polymorphism analyses by the coalescent and other methods. Bioinformatics 2003, 19:2496–2497.PubMedCrossRef 4SC-202 nmr 98. Excoffier L, Laval G, Schneider S: Arlequin (version 3.0): an integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evol Bioinform Online 2005, 1:47–50. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions VPR conducted data analysis and wrote the manuscript; MJS provided the conceptual framework, experimental design, and helped write the manuscript; PDPB and PL conducted laboratory work associated with genome sequencing; TL conducted data
analysis and genome assembly; BW conducted laboratory work associated with the survey of plasmid distribution across canine and bovine isolates; LT, and PM conducted field work associated with population genetics; RNZ conceived of the field and laboratory work for population genetics, conducted MLST and ribotyping, and was involved in manuscript histone deacetylase activity preparation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Fuel derived from waste-stream lignocellulosic biomass via consolidated bioprocessing is a renewable and carbon-neutral
alternative to current petroleum-based fuels [1–3]. Consequently, considerable effort is being made to characterize species capable of efficiently converting lignocellulosic substrates into biofuels. An ideal biofuel producing microorganism should posses several key features, including: (i) high yields of the desired product, (ii) simultaneous utilization of sugars (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin), and (iii) growth at elevated temperatures, Baricitinib and (iv) low product inhibition. Recent studies have focused on the characterization of numerous cellulose and hemicellulose degrading species of bacteria [4–6]. To fully exploit the biofuel producing potential of these organisms, several genomes have been sequenced and are now available for analysis (http://genome.jgi-psf.org/). While some hemicellulolytic or cellulolytic microorganisms are capable of hydrogen (H2) or ethanol production via fermentation, end-product yields typically are far lower than their maximum theoretical values (4 mol H2 or 2 mol ethanol per mol glucose) when cells are grown in pure culture.