We conducted an extensive search for specimens of extinct tiger s

We conducted an extensive search for specimens of extinct tiger subspecies, and also developed a simple on-site method to assign unprovenanced and probable Indonesian specimens to either Javan/Balinese or Sumatran subspecies. We located a total of 88 Javan, 11 Balinese, and 46 Caspian tigers, including seven new Javan tigers, and three Balinese tigers that were not widely known previously. These specimens

are critical for research in order to understand the intraspecific phylogeny and evolutionary history of the tiger.”
“Although the overall prevalence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and related hospitalizations S63845 purchase are decreasing, the initial presentation of complicated PUD on CT remains common. It, therefore, remains critical for radiologists to recognize the findings of PUD at CT for initial diagnosis. While the CT findings of complicated PUD have been previously described in the literature, the CT findings of uncomplicated PUD have not been well documented.

Furthermore, although CT is certainly not the diagnostic evaluation of choice for patients with suspected uncomplicated PUD, many patients with PUD will nonetheless present to the emergency department with unexplained abdominal pain and undergo MDCT evaluation as the initial diagnostic test. Therefore, recognizing the MDCT findings of uncomplicated PUD can help appropriately p38 MAPK signaling direct patient management, and help prevent the development of complications. To facilitate improved recognition of PUD on abdominal CT, we present an overview of the CT findings of both uncomplicated and complicated PUD, as well as several diagnostic pitfalls which can result in misdiagnosis from peptic ulcer mimics.”
“Object. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often impairs cognitive function. Diffusion tensor (DT) imaging, a novel modality, permits evaluation of the effects of head trauma on white matter nerve fibers. The objectives of the current study were to investigate where the white matter

injury following mild to moderate TBI is specifically located on DT imaging in the acute disease stage and to examine the relationship between the severity of the white matter lesion on DT imaging in the acute stage of TBI and future cognitive function in the chronic disease stage.\n\nMethods. Twenty adult patients with mild to moderate TBI (Glasgow Coma selleck chemical Scale score between 9 and 15) underwent conventional MR and DT imaging a median of 3.5 days after injury, and 27 matched healthy controls also underwent both imaging modalities. The patients with TBI were further subdivided into 2 groups, that is, mild and more severe TBI groups, based on clinical (mild or moderate TBI), CT (diffuse brain injury [DBI] I or II), or MR imaging (normal or pathological appearance) classification. Fractional anisotropies (FAs) were compared between patients and controls using the region of interest method.

A general suitability in mitigating other symptoms of major depre

A general suitability in mitigating other symptoms of major depressive disorder cannot be deduced from the actions of tasimelteon via the melatonin receptors MT(1) and MT(2).

The drug is well tolerated, does not induce impairment of next-day functioning or dependence, and seems to be safe in short-term treatment; however, toxicological data would be required for assessing its long-term safety.”
“Objective. – To investigate if there is a correlation between the so-called midcarpal inclination angle and the kinematic behavior of the scaphoid.\n\nPatients and methods. – The population studied was 60 patients with postero-anterior radiographs of the wrist in full radial and ulnar deviation. Each patient was assessed for the type of lunate by two independent observers. For each pair of radiographs the Midcarpal Inclination Angle and the Scaphoid Flexion Index (SFI) was determined.\n\nResults. – Twenty-three cases were classified CT99021 as lunate type I, 19 cases as type II. The average midcarpal inclination angle was 55.2 degrees (SD +/- 6.1) for wrists with a lunate type I and 63.8 degrees (DE +/- 6.3) for type II (p < 0.0001). There was a significant linear relationship between the midcarpal inclination angle and the Scaphoid Flexion Index (p = 0.02).\n\nConclusions. The wrists MRT67307 with a midcarpal

inclination angle greater than 60 (type H lunate) had a scaphoid rotating according to a “columnar pattern”, during radioulnar inclinations (predominant rotation along the sagittal plane), while the wrists with a lunate type I behave according to a “row pattern”. (C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether polypharmacy regimens can be safely and effectively reduced for youth placed in a residential treatment

center, and to assess the cost savings achieved from medication reductions. Methods: Data were collected for 131 youth ages 11-18, who were admitted to and discharged from a residential treatment center between 2007 and 2011. Six month postdischarge data were available for 51 youth. Data include demographics, admission and discharge medications, place of discharge, and postdischarge stability level. Results: Upon admission, 30 youth were not Galardin on medication, at discharge 48 were not; a 60% increase. Mean number of admission medications was 2.16 (SD = 0.97) versus 1.55 (SD = 0.70) upon discharge. Upon admission, one youth was on five and nine were on four medications. At end-point, only one youth was on four medications. The number of youth needing two or more medications declined by 55%, and the number of those needing three or more declined by 69%. The largest reduction was seen in the number of antipsychotics and antidepressants. Mood stabilizer and antipsychotic combinations declined by 65%.

The discrepancies between the open resection group and biopsy gro

The discrepancies between the open resection group and biopsy group were analysed.\n\nConclusion: Stereotactic MR guided serial biopsy is a minimal invasive procedure with low morbidity and high diagnostic

accuracy for diagnosis and grading of brain tumours. Diagnostic accuracy of stereotactic selleck chemicals biopsy can be enhanced further by careful interpretation of neuroradiological and clinical information. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have therapeutic applications that extend beyond epilepsy to include neuropathic pain, migraine headaches and psychiatric disorders. The risk of some AEDs has been clearly established, but for newer drugs, small sample sizes and polytherapy exposures preclude a conclusive Selleck JQEZ5 determination of their teratogenic potential. Most women with epilepsy will require AED therapy throughout their entire pregnancy to control seizures; the vast majority of pregnancies in women with epilepsy have positive outcomes. A conservative estimate suggests that AED monotherapy doubles,

and polytherapy triples, the risk for major congenital malformations. Furthermore, while evidence is still accruing, recent investigations suggest that exposure to select AEDs results in altered cognitive function later in development. There is no evidence to suggest that additional folic acid supplementation ameliorates the increased risk of congenital malformations conferred by in utero AED exposure.”
“Background: Vascular and valvular calcifications are a common finding in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and are associated with increased

morbidity and mortality. We investigated the hypothesis that calcification of the cardiac valves selleck chemicals llc is a marker of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and thoracic aorta calcification (AoC) in hemodialysis (CKD-5) patients.\n\nMethods: This was a cross-sectional study of 145 maintenance CKD stage 5 (CKD-5) patients. All patients underwent electron beam tomography for quantification of CAC and AoC score via the Agatston score. The presence of calcification of the cardiac valves was assessed by standard bi-dimensional echocardiography.\n\nResults: Eighty-four of the study patients (58%) had echocardiographic evidence of valvular calcification. A significant and graded association between valvular calcification and CAC as well as AoC was detected. Patients with 1 or 2 calcified valves had a significantly greater likelihood of having a CAC score >1,000 (odds ratio [OR] = 5.94; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.91-18.44; p=0.002; and OR=3.27; 95% CI, 1.36-7.88; p=0.007, respectively). Similarly, the presence of 1 or 2 calcified valves was associated with an eightfold and threefold increased probability of an AoC score greater than the third quartile, respectively.

Results: A total of 262 patients were enrolled and 107 patients (

Results: A total of 262 patients were enrolled and 107 patients (40.8%) underwent bronchoscopic BAL for etiologic diagnosis. One hundred and fifty-six patients (59.5%) had bacterial infections and 59 patients (22.5%) had viral infections. Viruses were detected in BAL fluid specimens of 37 patients (62.7%, 37/59). The most commonly identified viruses were respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus (both 27.1%, 16/59), followed by rhinovirus (25.4%, 15/59), and influenza

virus PD98059 (16.9%, 10/59). Twenty-one patients (8.0%, 21/262) had bacterial-viral coinfections and Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly coexisting bacteria (n = 10). Viral infection in non-immunocompromised patients was not uncommon (11.1%, 16/143), although it was not as frequent as that in immunocompromised patients (36.4%, 43/119). Non-immunocompromised patients were significantly older than immunocompromised patients and had significantly higher rates of underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculous destroyed lung

and chronic kidney disease. The 28 day mortalities of patients with bacterial infections, viral infections and bacterial-viral Dinaciclib nmr coinfections were not significantly different (29.5%, 35.6% and 19.0%, respectively; p=0.321). Conclusions: Viral pathogens are not uncommon in adult patients with severe HAP who required ICU admission. Since viral pathogens may cause severe HAP and could be a potential source of viral transmission, further investigation is required to delineate the role of viral pathogens in severe Anlotinib inhibitor HAP.”
“Plant-derived dietary antioxidants have attracted considerable interest in recent past for their ability to induce apoptosis and regression of tumors in animal models. While it is believed that the antioxidant properties of these agents may contribute to lowering the risk of cancer induction by impeding oxidative injury to DNA, it could not account for apoptosis induction and chemotherapeutic observations. In this article, we show that dietary antioxidants can alternatively switch to a prooxidant action in the presence of transition metals such

as copper. Such a prooxidant action leads to strand breaks in cellular DNA and growth inhibition in cancer cells. Further, the cellular DNA breakage and anticancer effects were found to be significantly enhanced in the presence of copper ions. Moreover, inhibition of antioxidant-induced DNA strand breaks and oxidative stress by Cu(I)-specific chelators bathocuproine and neocuproine demonstrated the role of endogenous copper in the induction of the prooxidant mechanism. Since it is well established that tissue, cellular, and serum copper levels are considerably elevated in various malignancies, such a prooxidant cytotoxic mechanism better explains the anticancer activity of dietary antioxidants against cancer cells.

Considering clinical flexibility, ” Lac = -0 259 + v-Lac x 0 996″

Considering clinical flexibility, ” Lac = -0.259 + v-Lac x 0.996″ might be more useful while avoiding a time-consuming and invasive procedure. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: Bilateral femoral shaft fractures have been reported see more to be an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality; however, the value of these studies is limited due to small sample sizes and the timing of these studies before the establishment of damage control orthopaedics. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of morbidity and mortality in patients with bilateral

vs. unilateral femoral shaft fractures in the era of damage control orthopaedics.\n\nMethods: Retrospective analysis of the TraumaRegister DGU from 2002 to 2005. Inclusion criteria were uni- or bilateral femoral shaft fractures and complete demographic data documentation. Univariate data analysis and logistic regression analysis selleck screening library were performed with SPSS.\n\nResults: Between 2002 and 2005, 776 patients with unilateral and 118 patients with bilateral femoral shaft fractures were identified. Patients with bilateral femoral shaft fractures had a significantly higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) (29.5 vs. 25.7 points), a significantly higher incidence of pulmonary (34.7% vs. 20.6%)

and multiple organ failure (25.0% vs. 14.6%) as well as a significantly higher mortality rate (16.9% vs. 9.4%). In the overall patient population, early total care (ETC) was significantly more often performed in patients with unilateral femoral shaft fractures (50.9% vs. 33.6%). Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between bilateral femoral shaft fractures and

multiple organ failure or mortality; however, bilateral femoral shaft fractures are an independent risk factor for pulmonary failure. Subgroup analysis revealed that the impact of the bilateral femoral shaft fracture was especially pronounced in patients with an ISS < 25 points.\n\nDiscussion: Bilateral femoral shaft fractures are an independent risk factor for pulmonary failure but not for multiple organ AZD1390 supplier failure or mortality. The impact of the additional femoral shaft fracture for pulmonary failure appears to be especially pronounced in the less severely injured patients, whose injuries are often underestimated when stratified with the ISS. Patients with bilateral femoral shaft fractures have significantly more often severe abdominal injuries as well as severe blood loss which may account for the increased mortality rate. Therefore, the presence of bilateral femoral shaft fractures should be recognised as an increased risk for systemic complications. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The association between renal dysplasia and minor malformations of the external ear is weak. However, there is a remarkable list of syndromes that link the kidney to the inner ear.

MethodsOutcomes were incidence of depression and/or anxiety, seve

MethodsOutcomes were incidence of depression and/or anxiety, severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms and quality-adjusted life years. Health-care utilisation was measured during interviews. Multiple imputation was used to impute missing cost and effect data. Uncertainty BMS-754807 in vivo around cost differences

and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios was estimated using bootstrapping. Cost-effectiveness planes and acceptability curves were created. ResultsThe incidence of depression and anxiety combined in the intervention group was not reduced in comparison with the usual care group. There was also no effect on the other outcomes. Mean total costs in the intervention group were Euro838 higher than in the usual care group, but this difference was not statistically significant (95% confidence Selleck Quisinostat interval, -593 to 2420). Cost-effectiveness

planes showed that there was considerable uncertainty. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that the maximum probability of the intervention being cost-effective in comparison with usual care was 0.46 for reducing the incidence of depression and anxiety combined. ConclusionA stepped care programme to prevent depression and anxiety in older people living in elderly homes was not considered cost-effective in comparison with usual care. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Collectively, pediatric low-grade Tipifarnib gliomas account for most brain tumors reported in children. Surgery is typically curable for operable lesions. However, more effective therapies are required for inaccessible

tumors, both to overcome refractory disease and to minimize the toxicity associated with conventional adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. Recent years have witnessed rapid improvements in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of several childhood tumors, including low-grade gliomas. As a result, several novel compounds targeting and inhibiting critical components of molecular signaling pathways purported to be over-active in the disease have been developed. This article summarizes the most recent literature evaluating such novel targeted agents in childhood low-grade gliomas.”
“It has been argued that globalization in human-mediated dispersal of species breaks down biogeographic boundaries, yet empirical tests are still missing. We used data on native and alien ranges of terrestrial gastropods to analyze dissimilarities in species composition among 56 globally distributed regions. We found that native ranges confirm the traditional biogeographic realms, reflecting natural dispersal limitations. However, the distributions of gastropods after human transport are primarily explained by the prevailing climate and, to a smaller extent, by distance and trade relationships.

This is not correct In five independent cohorts, researchers hav

This is not correct. In five independent cohorts, researchers have examined 463 pregnancies with fetuses with Down’s syndrome, 187 with trisomy 18, and 37 with trisomy 13. To maximize confidence in sensitivity estimates, find more all were high-risk pregnancies (in a general population, more than 250,000 pregnancies would have had to be studied). Five professional organizations, including the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists,(2) recommend offering such testing for high-risk pregnancies. The Perspective article also implies …”
“Background: There is anatomical and behavioural evidence that mu- and delta-opioid receptors modulate distinct nociceptive modalities within the superficial

dorsal horn. The aim of the present study was to examine whether mu- and delta-opioid receptor activation differentially modulates TRP sensitive inputs to neurons within the superficial dorsal horn. To do this, whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from lamina I II neurons in rat spinal cord slices in vitro to examine the effect of opioids on TRP agonist-enhanced glutamatergic spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs).\n\nResults: Under basal conditions the mu-opioid agonist DAMGO (3 mu M) reduced the rate of miniature

EPSCs in 68% of neurons, while the delta- and kappa-opioid agonists deltorphin-II (300 nM) and U69593 (300 nM) did so in 13 – 17% of neurons tested. The TRP agonists menthol (400 mu M) and icilin (100 mu OSI-744 datasheet M) both produced a Ca(2+)-dependent increase in miniature EPSC rate which was unaffected by the voltage dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blocker Cd(2+). The proportion of neurons in which deltorphin-II reduced the miniature EPSC rate was enhanced in the presence of icilin (83%), but not menthol (0%). By contrast, the proportion of DAMGO and U69593 responders was unaltered in the presence of menthol (57%, 0%), or icilin (57%, 17%).\n\nConclusions: These findings demonstrate that this website delta-opioid receptor activation selectively inhibits inputs activated by icilin, whereas mu-opioid receptor activation has a more widespread effect on synaptic inputs to neurons

in the superficial dorsal horn. These findings suggest that delta-opioids may provide a novel analgesic approach for specific, TRPA1-like mediated pain modalities.”
“Background: Reactivation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), as well as the recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV), occurs in the post liver transplantation period. However, their correlations remain questionable. The objectives of this study were to analyze the presence of CMV DNA and HHV-6 DNA in pre-transplant and post-transplant liver graft biopsies and to determine any correlations with CMV disease and HCV recurrence.\n\nMethods: Forty-one liver transplant recipients were followed up in the post-transplant period. The presence of CMV DNA and HHV-6 DNA was detected by nested PCR.\n\nResults: Four patients (4/41, 9.

The optimal prevention strategy is not currently known To assess

The optimal prevention strategy is not currently known. To assess current CMV prevention practices, a web-based survey was conducted within the North American Studies in Pediatric Liver Transplantation (SPLIT) network. Twenty-nine of the 31 centers (94%) surveyed responded. Only seven centers reported evidence-based development of protocols.

For most at-risk (donor or recipient CMV seropositive) PLT recipients, a prophylactic strategy predominates current practice. For high-risk (D+/R-), only three centers used non-prophylaxis-based protocols: one preemptive and two sequential/hybrid. Duration of prophylaxis ranged from 84 to 730 days with 14 centers using around 100 days and nine centers using around 200 days. Initial therapy with ganciclovir followed by valganciclovir was the most selleck chemicals llc common strategy. For lower-risk recipients (CMV D-/R-), more centers (10/29) employed a preemptive strategy while the remainder described prophylaxis (15)

and sequential/hybrid (3) strategies. Prophylaxis predominates current CMV prevention strategies for at-risk recipients within SPLIT. The variation in duration of therapy provides the opportunity to perform comparative effectiveness studies within SPLIT.”
“A study was conducted to detect and quantify lard stearin (LS) content in canola oil (CaO) using differential scanning calorimetry this website (DSC). Authentic samples of CaO were obtained from a reliable supplier and the adulterant LS were obtained through a fractional crystallization procedure as reported previously. Pure CaO samples spiked with LS in levels ranging from 5 to 15% (w/w) were analyzed using DSC HM781-36B to obtain their cooling and heating profiles. The results showed that samples contaminated with LS at 5% (w/w) level can be detected using characteristic contaminant peaks appearing in the higher temperature regions (0 to 70 degrees C) of the cooling and heating curves. Pearson correlation analysis of LS content against individual DSC parameters of the adulterant peak namely peak temperature, peak area, peak onset temperature indicated

that there were strong correlations between these with the LS content of the CaO admixtures. When these three parameters were engaged as variables in the execution of the stepwise regression procedure, predictive models for determination of LS content in CaO were obtained. The predictive models obtained with single DSC parameter had relatively lower coefficient of determination (R-2 value) and higher standard error than the models obtained using two DSC parameters in combination. This study concluded that the predictive models obtained with peak area and peak onset temperature of the adulteration peak would be more accurate for prediction of LS content in CaO based on the highest coefficient of determination (R-2 value) and smallest standard error.

In severe or moderately severe patients, we use plasma-derived FV

In severe or moderately severe patients, we use plasma-derived FVIII/VWF concentrate, and for mild to severe cases, we use desmopressin plus tranexamic acid. There are 103 patients with VWF ristocetin (RCo) <= 50 IU/dL: 38 (37%) severe (VWF:RCo <10 IU/dL), 28 (27%) moderate (VWF:RCo 10 to 29 IU/dL), and 37 (36%) mild (VWF:RCo 30 to 50 IU/dL). Hence in 66 (64%), FVIII/VWF concentrate is the mainstay selleck chemicals of treatment. The prevalence of VWD in our region according

to data from our center is per 12,000. A total of 52% of patients are type 1, 44% type 2, and 5% type 3. In our experience, type 2M (45% of type 2) is much more common than types 2A and 2B (each 9% of type 2). Mutation selleck detection is useful for identifying some subtypes of VWD.”
“Placental insufficiency resulting in fetal loss has been recognized in women with thrombophilic predisposition. Recent studies indicate

that there is a high prevalence of protein Z (PZ) deficiency in patients with unexplained fetal loss. The objective of this study was to measure the PZ levels in pregnant Omani women in the first, second and third trimesters and correlate with the pregnancy outcome. The study enrolled 126 consecutive pregnant women after an informed consent prospectively. PZ was estimated in the first, second and third trimester in 15, 97 and 66 pregnant women respectively and they were followed for pregnancy outcomes including live birth, still birth, spontaneous abortion/induced abortion, maternal complications, fetal complications and health risks/complications in the newborn. The median PZ level

(Mean +/- A SD) in the first, second and third trimester were 0.98 (1.07 +/- A 0.46), 1.3 (1.36 +/- A 0.61) and 1.44 (1.43 +/- A 0.69) (P < 0.05, Student’s t-test, between first vs. second and first vs. third trimester). PZ deficiency defined as PZ level below 0.54 mu g/ml (below 10th centile in the Omani population) was observed in 4 (4.7%) women, but interestingly all had a normal pregnancy outcome. Amongst the 43 subjects in whom paired PZ estimations Selleckchem AC220 were available, reducing PZ levels were observed from baseline values in 8 (33%) with normal pregnancy outcome; 5 (55%), with diabetes; 3 (50%) with hypertension and 2 (50%) with low birth weight respectively (P < 0.05, chi square test). PZ values increased progressively during the three trimesters of pregnancy. However, this increase is blunted in patients with abnormal pregnancy outcome like low birth weight babies or pregnancies associated hypertension or diabetes. Isolated PZ deficiency alone did not result in an abnormal outcome in this cohort of subjects.”
“Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, progressive, and ultimately fatal disease in almost all afflicted individuals.

Based on these models, preliminary evaluation of lithium resource

Based on these models, preliminary evaluation of lithium resources adequacy of the World and China for D-T fusion reactors was presented under certain assumptions. Results show that: https://www.selleckchem.com/products/lcl161.html a. The world terrestrial reserves of lithium seems too limited to support

a significant D-T power program, but the lithium reserves of China are relatively abundant, compared with the world case. b. The lithium resources contained in the oceans can be called the “permanent” energy. c. The change in Li-6 enrichment has no obvious effect on the availability period of the lithium resources using FD-SII (Liquid Pb-Li-17 breeder blanket) type of reactors, but it has a stronger effect when PPCS-B (Solid Li-4 SiO4 ceramics breeder blanket) is used.”
“Ticagrelor is a direct-acting reversibly binding P2Y(12) antagonist and is widely used as an antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome patients. However, antiplatelet therapy can be

associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Here, we present data on the identification Quizartinib and the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of an antigen-binding fragment (Fab) antidote for ticagrelor. The Fab has a 20 pM affinity for ticagrelor, which is 100 times stronger than ticagrelor’s affinity for its target, P2Y(12). Despite ticagrelor’s structural similarities to adenosine, the Fab is highly specific and does

not bind to adenosine, adenosine triphosphate, adenosine 5′-diphosphate, or structurally related drugs. The antidote concentration-dependently neutralized the free fraction of ticagrelor and reversed its antiplatelet activity both in vitro in human platelet-rich plasma and in vivo in mice. Lastly, the antidote proved effective in normalizing ticagrelor-dependent selleck inhibitor bleeding in a mouse model of acute surgery. This specific antidote for ticagrelor may prove valuable as an agent for patients who require emergency procedures.”
“In working with nanoparticles, researchers still face two fundamental challenges: how to fabricate the nanoparticles with controlled size and shape and how to characterize them. In this Account, we describe recent advances in laser technology both for the synthesis of organic nanoparticles and for their analysis by single nanoparticle spectroscopy.\n\nLaser ablation of organic microcrystalline powders in a poor solvent has opened new horizons for the synthesis of nanoparticles because the powder sample is converted directly into a stable colloidal solution without additives and chemicals. By tuning laser wavelength, pulse width, laser fluence, and total shot number, we could control the size and phase of the nanoparticles. For example, we describe nanoparticle formation of quinacridone, a well-known red pigment, in water.