PrPs were separated by SDS-PAGE, and the gels immersed in 20% met

PrPs were separated by SDS-PAGE, and the gels immersed in 20% methanol/5% acetic acid. The gels were then observed under UV light (365 nm) and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue. A cell-free conversion reaction assay was carried out as described previously (12–14). Seed PrPScs (600 ng) were pretreated with 3

M Gdn-HCl at 37°C for 1 hr. Recombinant PrPs (10 pmol) were added to conversion buffer (1.5 M Gdn-HCl, 1.25% sarkosyl, 50 mM citrate, pH 6.0). Pretreated seed PrPSc was then added to a final reaction volume of 24 μL, and the mixture incubated at 37°C for 24 hr. After incubation, PK (20 μg/mL) digestion was carried out at 37°C for 30 min. The digestion was stopped by adding pefabloc (Roche, Indianapolis, IN, USA) to a final concentration of 2 mM. Proteins in the reaction mixture selleck were recovered by precipitation with four volumes of methanol, and the pellets were dried and dissolved in SDS-PAGE sample buffer containing 100 mM DTT. The recovered de novo PrPress were analyzed by Western blotting using 3F4 mAb, and the signal intensities evaluated using a Chemi imager (Alpha Innotech) . The conversion efficiencies check details for each sample were expressed as a percentage change (mean ± SE relative to a control

value [control = 100]). The Chandler-seeded conversion value of MoPrP under nonreducing conditions was used as a control. A binding assay was performed as described previously (14). After the same incubation as in the cell-free conversion assay, the reaction mixture was centrifuged at 20,000 g for 10 min at 25°C. The supernatant (unbound fraction) was transferred to a tube, and the pellet (bound fraction)

was resuspended in 24 μL of the reaction solution, followed by washing once with 100 μL of the reaction solution. All samples were methanol-precipitated, and SDS-PAGE and Western blotting were conducted as described above. Binding efficiencies were expressed as a percentage change (mean ± SE) ADP ribosylation factor relative to control values. The binding value of MoPrP with Chandler PrPSc under nonreducing conditions was used as a control. The right hemisphere of an end stage prion-affected mouse was fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution. Coronal slices of the brain were cut and immersed in 98% formic acid to reduce infectivity, followed by embedding in paraffin wax. Sections (4 μm) were cut and stained with HE or analyzed by immunohistochemistry. For neuropathological analysis, the lesion profile was determined from the HE-stained sections by scoring the vacuolar changes in nine standard gray-matter areas, as described previously (15). For immunohistochemistry, PrPSc in brain sections was retrieved by the alkaline-based chemical method (16) and then detected using anti-PrP monoclonal antibody SAF84 against the epitope of amino acids 160–170 of the hamster prion protein.

Painting a transcriptional landscape of NK cells is a significant

Painting a transcriptional landscape of NK cells is a significant step toward understanding their activation, development,

and functional heterogeneity. This not only provides us with a global view of what occurs under these conditions in various cell types, but also potentially reveals new genes with important immunological function. These valuable resources impart crucial clues for further investigations into NK cells that will facilitate and accelerate research into multiple areas of NK-cell biology and into NK-cell-mediated clinical immunotherapy. We thank Yonggang Zhou for helping to export the network map into the manuscript. This work was supported by grants from the Natural Science Foundation of China (#81330071, #31021061). The authors declare no financial or Small molecule library ic50 commercial find more conflict of interest. “
“Several optical imaging techniques have been used to monitor bacterial tropisms for cancer. Most such techniques require genetic engineering of the bacteria to express optical reporter genes. This

study investigated a novel tumor-targeting strain of bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 (R. sphaeroides), which naturally emits near-infrared fluorescence, thereby facilitating the visualization of bacterial tropisms for cancer. To determine the penetration depth of bacterial fluorescence, various numbers of cells (from 108 to 1010 CFU) Molecular motor of R. sphaeroides and two types of Escherichia coli, which stably express green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP), were injected s.c. or i.m. into mice. Bacterial tropism for cancer was determined after i.v. injection of R. sphaeroides (108 CFU) into mice implanted s.c. with eight types of tumors. The intensity of

the fluorescence signal in deep tissue (muscle) from R. sphaeroides was much stronger than from E. coli-expressing GFP or RFP. The near-infrared fluorescence signal from R. sphaeroides was visualized clearly in all types of human or murine tumors via accumulation of bacteria. Analyses of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin concentrations and body weights indicated that i.v. injection of R. sphaeroides does not induce serious systemic immune reactions. This study suggests that R. sphaeroides could be used as a tumor-targeting microorganism for the selective delivery of drugs to tumor tissues without eliciting a systemic immune reaction and for visualizing tumors. “
“Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nephrology, D3-P, postbus 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands UCL Institute of Child Health, Molecular Immunology Unit, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK Transgen-enhet, Domus Medica, Sognsvannsveien 9, 0317 Oslo, Norway It is widely believed that DC, but not macrophages, prime naïve T cells in vivo.

To be able to

judge if there is a correlation between age

To be able to

judge if there is a correlation between age and TREC levels in LPL, all results with undetectable TREC levels from both uninflamed controls and IBD patients were excluded and only those with a positive TREC value were included in the correlation analysis, irrespective of diagnosis. Similar to peripheral blood, no significant correlation was found between TREC levels in LPL and age of the individual (r = 0·084, P = 0·78, data not shown). Thus, the levels of TREC containing lymphocytes in the intestinal mucosa are independent of the activity of the intestinal inflammation and increasing age has no or low influence on the levels of TRECs in IBD patients either in peripheral blood or in the intestinal mucosa (data not shown). These correlation analyses demonstrate that this website the elevated TREC levels Fulvestrant chemical structure seen in UC patients in the intestinal mucosa are not a result of age difference between IBD patients and the uninflamed controls. There are several lines of evidence demonstrating that T lymphocytes can develop in situ in the intestine [17,18]. As TRECs are formed during TCR gene rearrangement, the possibility that the high levels of TRECs seen in the inflamed mucosa in UC patients was due to extrathymic maturation could not be excluded. To establish that the increased levels of TRECs seen in the intestinal mucosa of UC patients stem from

T cells of thymic origin and not from progenitor T lymphocytes recruited from the bone marrow directly to the inflamed intestinal mucosa, we analysed the intestinal T lymphocytes for subpopulations of early lineage T cells, being CD16-CD19-CD2+CD5+CD7+CD3- using five-colour flow cytometry. The staining is restricted to LPL as the limited numbers of IEL retrieved in the isolation procedure was not sufficient to perform this analysis.

Thymidylate synthase A representative dot plot demonstrating the gating on CD16-CD19-CD2+ lymphocytes and subsequently on CD5+CD7+ and CD3low/− lymphocytes is shown (Fig. 4a). Figure 4b summarizes the data from LPL from uninflamed controls and IBD patients and demonstrate that the frequency of early T cell progenitors is similar in the two groups. To further exclude enhanced extrathymic maturation in IBD patients we also analysed the expression of mRNA encoding one of two subunits of the heterodimeric RAG protein participating in the initial process of TCR gene rearrangement, RAG1, as well as the expression of pre-TCR-α mRNA, a surrogate, invariant TCR-α chain pairing with the rearranged TCR-β chain during T cell maturation. Both these genes are expressed transiently during T cell development, but not in mature T lymphocytes. RAG1 and pre-TCR-α mRNA levels were quantified by real-time PCR in intestinal mucosal biopsies, which includes mRNA from both IEL and LPL. The results demonstrated equally low or undetectable levels in both IBD patients (UC; n = 5, CD; n = 1) and controls (n = 7) (data not shown).

While both DC populations effectively primed CD8+ T cell response

While both DC populations effectively primed CD8+ T cell responses to cell-associated antigens, only mcDC were capable to prime CD4+ T cells to cell-associated antigens. Consequentially, the transfer of tumour vaccine-pulsed mcDC, but not of CD8 DCs, protected mice from subsequent tumour challenge in a vaccination model and resulted in eradication

of established tumours in a therapeutic mTOR inhibitor approach. These results show that the beneficial effect of FLT3L is associated with the induction of mcDC and suggests that selective targeting to mcDC or instilling mcDC ‘characteristics’ into conventional DC populations could significantly enhance the efficacy of tumour vaccines. Autologous tumour cell vaccines are intended to drive specific activation of the adaptive immune system for therapy of existing malignancies. The resulting in vivo destruction of tumour cells leads to an additional release of tumour antigens that further amplifies tumour-specific T cell responses [1–3]. This secondary antigenic boost has been suggested to help to enhance and sustain anti-tumour T cell responses and prevent recurrences and metastases. Dendritic cells (DC) are the only antigen-presenting cells that can adequately prime naive T cells.

The (cross)-presentation of tumour antigens by DC upon uptake of dying tumour cells/tumour cell debris has also been shown to be critical for the induction of endogenous anti-tumour T cell responses [4,5]. DCs are phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous. MLN0128 concentration At least six DC subsets have been described in mice and Erastin humans: plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), three blood-derived subsets (CD4+ DCs, CD8α+ DCs and CD4-CD8- DCs [6,7]) and two tissue-derived subsets (Langerhans’ cells and dermal/interstitial DCs)

– all of which appear to be distinct sublineages and not precursor-product-related [8–10]. However, this classification has been proved to be a simplified subdivision, as we and others have recently identified novel DC subsets that are either present in common lymphoid tissues or associated with specific organs [11–15]. Even though most DC subsets can capture proteins and cell-associated antigens and can activate CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when pulsed with cognate peptides, only few DC populations have the actual capacity to process and present tumour-derived antigens to T cells [16,17]. Cross-presentation of cell-associated antigens to CD8+ T cells in particular is believed to be limited to just one or two DC populations [17,18]. Moreover, besides the fact that only few DC subsets can present both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes from cell-associated antigens, both human and mouse studies have shown that detection and subsequent clearance of apoptotic cells leads to a tolerogenic state in DC [19–22].

PrPSSLOW was additionally observed in lysosomes of microglial cel

PrPSSLOW was additionally observed in lysosomes of microglial cells but not of neurones or astrocytes. PrPSSLOW is propagated by cell membrane conversion of normal PrP and lethal disease may be linked to the progressive growth of amyloid plaques. Cell membrane

changes present in SSLOW are indistinguishable from those of naturally occurring TSEs. However, some lesions found in SSLOW are absent in natural animal TSEs and vice versa. SSLOW may not entirely recapitulate neuropathological features previously described for natural disease. End-stage neuropathology in SSLOW, particularly the nature and distribution of amyloid plaques may be significantly influenced by the early redistribution of seeds within the inoculum and its recirculation following interstitial, perivascular and other drainage pathways. The way in which seeds are distributed and aggregate into plaques in SSLOW has significant overlap with murine APP overexpressing mice challenged buy BMS-777607 with Aβ. “
“The serotonin 2A receptor (HTR2A) is widely expressed in the brain and involved in the modulation of fear, mood, anxiety and other symptoms. HTR2A and HTR2A gene variations are implicated in depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder. To understand HTR2A signalling changes in psychiatric or neurodegenerative disorders, its normal pattern of brain expression and region specificity during development and aging needs to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to assess

HTR2A expression through developmental and aging stages in six brain regions in postmortem human brain samples from individuals with no clinical or neuropathological evidence of neuropsychiatric

disorders and to investigate selleck inhibitor the interaction Liothyronine Sodium with the rs6311 HTR2A promoter polymorphism. DNA, RNA and protein were isolated from postmortem brain samples including six regions (frontal cortex, striatum, amygdala, thalamus, brain stem and cerebellum) from 55 individuals. HTR2A mRNA levels were assessed using quantitative real time RT-PCR, and HTR2A protein levels – with western blot. The rs6311 HTR2A polymorphism was analyzed with genotyping. We found that HTR2A mRNA and protein levels are differentially regulated with age in different brain regions studied, but are not affected by gender. Significant changes in HTR2A expression with age were found in frontal cortex, amygdala, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Our results show plasticity and region specificity of HTR2A expression regulation in human brain with age, which may be important for the interaction with other neurotransmitter systems and for the occurrence of developmental periods with increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric or neurodegenerative disorders. “
“A few case series in adults have described the characteristics of epithelioid glioblastoma (e-GB), one of the rarest variants of this cancer. We evaluated clinical, radiological, histological and molecular characteristics in the largest series to date of paediatric e-GB.

An increase in the frequency of MDSC in the peripheral blood of p

An increase in the frequency of MDSC in the peripheral blood of patients with different types of cancers has been demonstrated.1,2 Murine MDSC are characterized by co-expression of Gr-1 and CD11b, and can be further subdivided into two major groups: CD11b+ Gr-1high granulocytic MDSC (which can also be identified as CD11b+ Ly-6G+ Ly6Clow MDSC) and CD11b+ Gr-1low monocytic MDSC (which can also be identified as CD11b+ Ly-6G− Ly6Chigh MDSC). We have previously identified CD49d as another marker to distinguish these two murine cell populations from each

other.3 We could demonstrate that CD11b+ CD49d+ monocytic MDSC mTOR inhibitor were more potent suppressors of antigen-specific T cells in vitro than CD11b+ CD49d− granulocytic MDSC. S100A9 has recently been reported to be essential for MDSC accumulation in tumour-bearing mice. It was also Palbociclib shown that S100A9 inhibits dendritic cell differentiation by up-regulation of reactive oxygen species. Finally, no increase in the frequency of MDSC was observed in S100A9 knockout mice, which also showed strong anti-tumour immune responses and rejection of implanted tumours,4 indicating the relevance of S100A9+ MDSC in tumour settings. In contrast to murine MDSC, human MDSC are not so clearly defined because of the lack of specific markers. Human MDSC have been shown to be CD11b+, CD33+ and HLA-DR−/low.

In addition, interleukin-4 receptor α, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, CD15 and CD66b have been suggested as more specific markers for human MDSC. However, these markers can only be found on some MDSC subsets.5 It has been suggested that 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase monocytic MDSC are CD14+ 2,6 and granulocytic MDSC express CD15,7,8 whereas both groups of MDSC are HLA-DR−/low and CD33+. The heterogeneous expression of these markers suggests that multiple subsets of human MDSC can exist. We have previously shown direct ex vivo isolation of a new subset of MDSC that are significantly

increased in the peripheral blood and tumours of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. These cells express CD14, have low or no expression of HLA-DR and have high arginase activity. CD14+ HLA-DR−/low cells not only suppress the proliferation of and interferon-γ secretion by autologous T cells, but also induce CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells that are suppressive in vitro.9 Others have been able to detect CD14+ cells with suppressor activity in the peripheral blood from patients with other malignancies such as melanoma, colon cancer and head and neck cancer.8,10 We have been able to demonstrate their suppressor activity in patients with colon cancer (data not shown). Although many studies have shown the presence of human MDSC in different pathological conditions, understanding their biology in human cancer requires further characterization of these cells.

In addition, elevated urinary albumin excretion rate, as a marker

In addition, elevated urinary albumin excretion rate, as a marker of systemic microcirculatory dysfunction, predicts both incident stroke [73] and survival after stroke [59]. Recently, an elevated urinary albumin excretion rate has been associated with elevated capillary pressure [50] and impaired microcirculatory autoregulation [54]. This abnormality in autoregulation also predicts adverse left ventricular Selleck GS 1101 remodeling and left atrial size, both predictors of future stroke and

cardiovascular mortality (Figure 1) [55]. Indeed, this autoregulatory abnormality explains the association between left ventricular hypertrophy and albumin excretion rate, and may represent an etiopathogenic link. It is currently under further investigation. Most cardiovascular disease occurs in the proportionately larger number of individuals with low-to-moderate absolute risk. Clinical intervention decisions are often based on the likelihood Ensartinib that an individual will have a cardiovascular event over a given period of time; however, these decisions are often made on an incomplete assessment of risk. These epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of microcirculatory dysfunction as an early marker of vascular disease, prior to established markers, such as elevated glucose, hypertension or left ventricular hypertrophy being present. Screening for

microvascular dysfunction using a combination of the aforementioned techniques can be advantageous for the early detection of microvascular disease, in aiding diagnosis, in monitoring disease progression, and response to therapy. Most of the techniques discussed herein are used in the exploration of microvascular function in a research setting. Only some of these may be easily translated into clinical practice. Investigating the retinal microvasculature is relatively simple and can be employed on a large scale [68]. As such, it has been translated into Amobarbital clinical practice for those

with diabetes at least. Similarly, urinary albumin excretion rate translates easily into clinical practice as its proxy, albumin:creatinine ratio, can be measured on a single urine specimen. Changes in urinary albumin excretion have been shown to be very useful for estimating risk of future CV events [18,31]. Therefore, this suggests that to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease, progression of urinary albumin excretion should be prevented and regression thereof regarded as a primary treatment goal [9]. However, there are limited data on the long-term cost-effectiveness of systematic screening for urinary albumin excretion and more importantly, targeting it as a therapeutic outcome in those at high risk either by virtue of their hypertension or their past disease such as stroke, transient ischemic attack or myocardial infarction [4].

27 Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in both d

27 Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in both dialysis and transplant patients, and current evidence suggests caution with the use of both agents but favours the utilization of pioglitazone if a PPARγ agonist was desired. These agents, which include acarbose, miglitol and voglibose, are enzyme inhibitors that act in the intestines to attenuate the absorption of carbohydrates. Acarbose has been shown to reduce HbA1c by approximately 0.8% in type 2 diabetics,3 although the increased delivery of carbohydrates into the colon means gastrointestinal side effects are very Cobimetinib concentration common and include flatulence,

bloating, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. This severely limits the utility of these agents as between 24% and 45% of patients will discontinue these agents.3,28 In the context of renal impairment, acarbose is not recommended for use in individuals with an eGFR less than 25 mL/min, although it is often overlooked for any degree of renal insufficiency. Its use in kidney transplant recipients is also likely to be prohibited as its concomitant use with mycophenolate mofetil could trigger gastrointestinal upset. The meglitinides, repaglinide and netaglinide, are short-acting CP-673451 agents that close the ATP-dependent

potassium channel on cell membranes of the pancreatic beta cell in a similar fashion to sulphonylureas, MG-132 cost resulting in depolarization of cells and subsequent calcium influx inducing insulin secretion. By administration pre-meals, it reduces postprandial glycaemia and is associated with HbA1c reductions of up to 2.1% (repaglinide > netaglinide).29 Side effects of the meglitinides include hypoglycaemia and weight gain, with gastrointestinal

symptoms rare. One of the significant advantages of meglitinides is the safe administration of these agents in the context of even severe renal impairment (repaglinide > netaglinide), as these drugs undergo hepatic clearance. To this effect, repaglinide is one of the only drugs shown to be safe (minimal interaction with immunosuppression) and efficacious (HbA1c lowering) post-transplantation30 and is considered the first-line agent for use in the context of new onset diabetes after transplantation.2 The two main gut hormones (or incretins) are glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), secreted by K cells in the upper small intestines. Gut hormones have been shown to have an important role in whole-body glucose homeostasis by suppressing meal-related glucagon secretion, delay gastric emptying and induce satiety,31 with GLP-1 having greater potency than GIP.

abscessus, precise identification of these species would be impor

abscessus, precise identification of these species would be important for the treatment

of infected patients. Because of the very close relationship, the differentiation between M. abscessus and M. massiliense has largely depended on sequence analysis of several housekeeping genes (7, 31). Furthermore, in some strains, additional housekeeping genes were analyzed because of the discordant results between Selleckchem Target Selective Inhibitor Library rpoB and hsp65 gene analysis (7, 13). As observed in the present study, the ambiguous two clinical isolates, which had finally been identified as M. massiliense by additional sequence analysis (7), were proven to have the typical erm(41) sequence of M. massiliense. This means that the small erm(41) found only in M. massiliense, but not in other RGM, provides a simple clue for the differentiation. Thus, we suggest that molecular methods targeting erm(41), especially erm(41) PCR, can be easily and efficiently used for the differential identification of M. massiliense from M. abscessus and M. bolletii in the clinical microbiological laboratory.

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2009-007-6884). H.-Y. Kim and B. J. Kim were supported by the third stage of the Brain Korea 21 Project. “
“The use of bacteria as probiotics is in continuous development, thanks to their capacity to maintain or restore a host’s natural microbiome by interference with and/or inhibition Epigenetics inhibitor of other microorganisms mediated by antimicrobial peptide production such as bacteriocins. In the oral cavity, Streptococcus salivarius, a non-pathogenic and predominant oral species, is one of the major bacteriocin producers that is able to coexist in this environment and reduce the frequency of colonization of the main pathogens involved in upper respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to screen oral bacteria colonizing healthy children

for their use as potential oral probiotics. Eighty-one 4��8C α-hemolytic streptococci isolated from nasal and/or pharyngeal swabs of 31 healthy children aged between two and twelve years were isolated. Among them, 13 α-hemolytic streptococci were selected for their bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity against potential pathogens. These strains were tested for bacteriocin production and assayed for their capacity to adhere to HEp-2 cell lines. Our data showed that 13 bacteriocin producer strains were able to inhibit different gram-positive pathogens. Among them one strain, S. salivarius 24SMB, deposited as DSM 23307, was selected as a potential oral probiotic, thanks to its safety assessment, ability to inhibit Streptococcus pneumoniae and the absence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes.

2,4–6 Although the preponderance of literature ties glycogen synt

2,4–6 Although the preponderance of literature ties glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) to cytokine production by activation of TLR4,7,8 actually, as a critical element downstream element of the phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, GSK-3β promotes mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signalling by a broad range of insults.9–13 The GSK-3β is constitutively active whereas phosphorylation of GSK-3β at the Selleckchem RAD001 regulatory serine residue of position 9 causes

its inactivation and turns off downstream effectors.14 Homeostasis of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of GSK-3β is temporally and spatially controlled in mammalian cells to avoid detrimental responses.15,16 Numerous negative regulators leading to loss of GSK-3β activity, function to inhibit GSK-3β-dependent apoptosis. However, there is still little work focusing on the roles of GSK-3β in the TLR-mediated apoptotic signalling pathway. β-Arrestin 2, as a scaffold protein, has been traditionally associated with termination of G protein coupled receptor signalling.17 As a result of the identification of new β-arrestin-interacting partners, more novel roles of β-arrestin

2 have been exploited. The interaction of β-arrestin 2 with its signalling partners usually modulates phosphorylation, ubiquitination and/or subcellular distribution of see more the binding molecules.18 Recruitment of β-arrestin 2 to multiple downstream effectors of the TLR4 signalling pathway negatively regulates the activation of NF-κB and activator protein 1.18–21 Accumulating evidence suggests that β-arrestins function in the anti-apoptotic pathway by impacting the activity of interacted kinases.22–24 In the case of neurokinin-1 receptor, β-arrestin forms a complex with the internalized receptor, src, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, thereby facilitating proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects following substance p stimulation.24 In the

current study we sought to investigate a possible role of GSK-3β in TLR4-mediated apoptotic signalling and attempted to clarify the underlying mechanism by which TLR4 impairs the cell survival pathway. We established the non-infectious injury cell model through serum deprivation (SD) to determine if and how TLR4 participates in the apoptotic signalling and provided insight into the detrimental effects Protein tyrosine phosphatase of TLR4 on SD-induced apoptosis. Our studies reveal that GSK-3β-dependent apoptosis is aggravated in the existence of TLR4. Furthermore, β-arrestin 2 acts as a defender against apoptotic signalling through alteration of GSK-3β phosphorylation. Total/phospho-GSK-3β (serine 9), total/phospho-Akt (serine 473), pro-/cleaved-caspase-3 antibodies were purchased from Cell Signal Technology (Beverly, MA). Anti-β-arrestin 2 was obtained from Santa Cruz (Santa Cruz, CA) and the GSK-3β inhibitor SB216763 and the PI3K inhibitor LY294003 were obtained from Tocris Bioscience (Bristol, UK).