79 Overall, the use of SSRIs remains the first-line treatment, wi

79 Overall, the use of SSRIs remains the first-line treatment, with the best evidence-base. However, for the patients who can not tolerate or do not benefit from SSRIs, a variety of other treatment options can be considered. A proposed treatment algorithm is described in Table II, and is expected to need refinement as clinical evidence grows. Table II. Treatment algorithm for pediatric anxiety pharmacotherapy In June 2003, the FDA recommended against the use of paroxetine

for Major Depressive Disorder in children and adolescents EKG, electrocardiogram, BP, blood pressure, 5-HTa PA, serotonin Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical partial … Treatment considerations informed by diagnosis Youth diagnosed with one anxiety disorder are quite likely to have multiple anxiety disorders concurrently, including Major Depressive Disorder, Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Tourette’s Disorder.36, 80 In CAMS, among youth who met Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical criteria for one or more anxiety disorders, 46% met criteria for other internalizing disorders, 11.9% for ADHD, 9.4% for ODD, and 2.7% for tic disorders.36 Providers should therefore broadly evaluate anxiety symptoms, and assess the degree of impairment thought to be driven by subtypes in order to prioritize treatment. Attention to these comorbidities is essential for Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical comprehensive treatment

but may require

a stepwise approach. Risk factors for having a combination of depression and anxiety include Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical older age and greater severity of anxiety symptoms.80 Although most RCTs of anxiety exclude depressive disorder diagnosis from entry, open-label use of citalopram showed a significantly lower rate of response in patients with comorbid anxiety and depression versus either alone.32 Children with behavioral dysregulation as a result Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of anxiety may consequently display features of oppositionality, leading to diagnoses of disruptive behavior disorder or ODD. Anxious children may intently refuse to comply with demands of learn more authority figures, such as leaving the house on time or reading aloud Megestrol Acetate in class, and refrain from communicating the intense and often embarrassing fear that drives this oppositionality. Family psychoeducation and school coordination may thus reduce conflict. Following treatment, features of externalizing disorders should be re-evaluated. Anxiety disorders in children also often co-occur with ADHD.81 Anxious children may have difficulty paying attention because of hypervigilance or preoccupation with peer concerns, as opposed to ADHD-related impairments. Careful assessment is therefore essential to address the core symptomatology, and also to monitor for potential anxiogenic effects of medications during stimulant trials.

The reptilian brain is for basic instincts (feeding, fighting), t

The reptilian brain is for basic instincts (feeding, fighting), the paleomammalian brain deals with emotions, and the neomammalian brain is responsible for complex associative functions. The dialogue between these three brains may be difficult,

because only the neomammalian brain seems capable of handling information with verbal and symbolic modalities. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Point-to-point (wired or linear) transmission of information is a necessary component of perception and motor activity according to the concept of modularity: a specific brain region is mostly responsible for a specific function. This wired transmission of information is also relevant, for higher brain functions, a fact that was elegantly demonstrated by Downer in a paper published in Nature Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in 1961.8 His paper is about, visual gnostic functions and emotional

behavior in split, brain monkeys, with the corpus callosum and optic chiasma both cut. In such a model, information getting to one eye only goes to the ipsilateral cortex Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and the two cortices can no longer exchange information as they usually do through the corpus callosum. The next step was to destroy the amygdala in one temporal lobe, leaving the other one intact. When this was done, covering the eye that projected to the lesioned cortex had no consequences: the monkey behaved in a normal manner (reacting aggressively to any human it saw). When the eye projecting to the nonlesioned cortex Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was covered, behavior became abnormal, with the monkey being indifferent to the potential threat of an approaching human; it “saw” the world through its lesioned amygdala only. This example of a unilateral Kluver-Bucy syndrome supports the notion of point-to-point or wired transfer of information, ie, modularity in behavioral control. It was selective for the visual modality, since, if the monkey was touched by a human, it reacted violently, as usual. Research in human beings who have a lesioned corpus callosum has also illustrated this modularity of brain functions: in these Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical studies, it was established that the

right cortex had information that the left one did not have access to. Brainimaging techniques have now opened fields of mTOR inhibitor knowledge far beyond these early and clever analyses. For example, it has become possible to identify which brain areas are metabolically active after the intravenous injection of nicotine in human subjects. Thus, limbic areas related Vasopressin Receptor to higher brain functions such as reward and emotions are more active, specifically the nucleus accumbens, the amygdala, the cingulate, and frontal lobes.“ The study of higher brain functions is complex, because each can be analyzed at different levels (from psychology to molecular biology), and because few higher brain functions are unitary, a fact that can be illustrated with the many aspects of consciousness.

Any respondents who had experienced an ‘expected’ death were ask

Any respondents who had experienced an ‘expected’ death were asked if they had sought help for ‘dealing with their grief and if so, from whom?’. An ability to ‘move on’ was a question used to incorporate concepts suggested in the grief literature more than one decade ago [13]. A sub-study sought responses based on suggestions from the pilot group as to what ‘moving on’ meant to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical people in the context of grief. [10] Before use, all questions were piloted annually with 50 members of the general

public for their detailed understanding. No changes were required as a result of feedback from the pilot. Ethics approval and consent The survey was approved by a Department of Health Research Ethics Committee, and participants provided Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical verbal consent to participate. Analyses Data were directly standardized against the whole state (2001) for gender,

10 year age group, socio-economic status, and region of residence (urban, suburban, outer metropolitan, regional, rural and remote). Descriptive statistics were used Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to summarize respondent characteristics and Autophagy activator frequency of responses. Relationships between categorical variables were assessed using chi squared and regression analyses for continuous variables. Variables explored in univariate analyses included: characteristics of the deceased (diagnosis, time since death, comfort in the last two weeks of life); demographic data of the respondent (gender, age, country of birth, highest level of education, current work status, marital status, pre-tax household income, rural/metropolitan place Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of residence); caregiving characteristics (relationship to

the deceased, intensity of care and period of time for which care was provided, caregivers’ expectations between the time of diagnosis and death, and the ability to ‘move on’ with their life); Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and service issues (SPCHS use). Logistic regression models were created to identify the strongest predictors of people who reached out for any bereavement support and for professional bereavement over support. From univariate analyses, items were included in the multivariate analyses if they had a p < 0.10. Results Of the 9500 buildings approached, 307 (3.2%) were vacant, could not be accessed or were businesses, and contact could not be made after six visits with a further 1064 (11.2%). Having made contact, reasons for not participating included: too busy/not interested; (1819, 19.1%), illness or mental incapacity (133; 1.4%), and language barriers (142, 1.5%). One person terminated the interview while in progress. Having made contact with 8129 households, 6034 people completed interviews (participation rate – 73.3% (unweighted data)) [see Additional file 2]. General characteristics of the bereaved All data reported from this point are from population weighted data.

While additional decades may be required

to reach a simil

While additional decades may be required

to reach a similar state of sophistication in the analysis of mammalian clockwork function, the progress made in this field has been nevertheless extraordinary. During the past 10 years, an impressive repertoire of molecular cogwheels has been established, and we are beginning to understand how these cogwheels Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are intertwined. The discovery of cell-autonomous and self-sustained molecular oscillators in virtually every body cell led to a paradigm change of how the clockwork circuitry governs overt rhythms in behavior and physiology. It now appears that the mammalian timing system resembles an extensive and hierarchically structured web of cellular oscillators, whose phases must be coordinated at the single cell level by

the master pacemaker in the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical SCN. We are also beginning to understand how molecular clocks in individual peripheral cells cooperate with cell typespecific and inducible mechanisms to optimize metabolism and physiology. Despite these advances, an important and scientifically Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical challenging issue remains to be addressed. Although Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical evolution-based arguments leave little doubt as to the importance of a well-functioning circadian clock for survival under natural conditions, it has been difficult to show its contribution to fitness of mammalian organisms in the laboratory. The association of increased morbidity to clock gene mutations does not address this issue in a satisfactory fashion, since such genes may execute important functions unrelated to circadian Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical rhythm

generation (for example control of ossification by clock genes143, 144). In cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus)145, 146 and a green plant (Arabidopsis thaliana)147 the benefit of circadian timing was demonstrated by an ingenious Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase and convincing strategy. In both species, a clock resonating with imposed light-dark cycles has been shown to increase performance and fitness. Since, Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library depending on the imposed environmental conditions, the same clock gene mutation can be beneficial or deleterious in such experiments, the observed phenotypes must thus be caused by a rhythm-related property of the gene mutation under study. Eventually this approach should succeed in mammals as well, given the availability of mutant mice and hamsters with aberrant period length.

There is a learning curve for every new echocardiographic applica

There is a learning curve for every new echocardiographic application. Physicians must spend sufficient long time and effort for being expert in these new techniques”.1 In the new era of cost containment, because of lower cost and the potential to provide definite information, comprehensive and appropriate echocardiography is mandatory.

Doing such studies should eliminate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical further need for more expensive and potentially harmful examinations in the LGK-974 in vivo majority of patients and should have a big influence on cost-effectiveness of patients’ care. Conclusion Echocardiography is an essential part of practice in cardiology. Such as other technologies, this technology has many pros and cons. The major disadvantage is its need for a learning curve for providing quantitative examinations and interpretations. Its principal advantage is its outstanding versatile technology. Properly performed examinations in the right patient for the right reason, would be highly cost-effective. Conflict of Interest: None declared
Severe hyperkalemia during orthotopic liver transplantation, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is very dangerous, and needs vigilant monitoring of serum potassium and acute management

of the hyperkalemia.1,2 The causes of hyperkalemia during different stages are; 1) extracellular shift in exchange for H+ during severe metabolic acidosis in an-hepatic phase Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and reperfusion of the graft liver, and 2) exogenous potassium due to blood transfusion or entry of the preservative fluid University of Wisconsin (UW) solution into systemic circulation during reperfusion of the graft liver.2 However, this morbid hyperkalemia is more common in the early reperfusion Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical phase than at other times during liver transplantation.3 Although hyperkalemic episodes occurring immediately after reperfusion of new transplanted liver are most frequent and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical substantial, hyperkalemia in other phases

during orthotopic liver transplantation is also hazardous and serious.2,3 For a short duration (about 3-5 min) after reperfusion of the graft liver, patients usually develop hyperkalemia. The main sources of this hyperkalemia are preservative fluid (UW solution), which contains high concentration of potassium, and severe acidosis following Mephenoxalone reperfusion, which can mobilize intracellular potassium from all of the tissues.2 However, hyperkalemia before reperfusion during liver transplantation anesthesia is not common. The two independent risk factors for pre-reperfusion hyperkalemia during liver transplantation are high baseline potassium concentration and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion.3 Baseline potassium is the first potassium level in operation room. An insulin protocol, in which separated doses of the regular insulin is administered together with blood transfusion in patients with high baseline K, has been used to prevent hyperkalemia due to blood transfusion.4 Herein in we present a case that developed hyperkalemia without blood transfusion during pre-anhepatic phase of liver transplantation.

3, 4 These universal definitions of MI were published in 2000 and

3, 4 These universal definitions of MI were published in 2000 and 2007, and they included more standardized and reproducible definitions and a new classification of MI.3 The first global MI task

force classified any degree of myocardial necrosis in the setting of myocardial ischemia as MI and provided qualifications to characterize the MI (size, trigger, timing, etc).3 The second global MI task force updated the first MI definition and included a new five-category Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical classification.4 Significant developments in the diagnosis of cardiac necrosis (i.e., high-sensitivity assays) and revised definitions of myocardial necrosis, particularly in the settings of critical illnesses and post-revascularization, resulted in the publication of the Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction.2 Last December, the American College of Cardiology Foundation5 published the 2012 expert consensus document on the practical clinical considerations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the interpretation of troponin elevations.5 The Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction The Dolutegravir cell line detection of

a rise and/or fall of cardiac biomarkers, with at least one of the values being elevated (>99th percentile upper reference limit, or URL), is central to the third universal definition of MI.2 The highly sensitive and specific Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cardiac troponin (cTn) is the preferred biomarker of myocardial necrosis. In addition, one of the five following predefined criteria should be satisfied before a diagnosis of MI is made: (1) symptoms of myocardial ischemia; (2) new (or presumably Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical new) significant ST-segment/T-wave changes or left bundle branch block; (3) development of pathological Q waves on ECG; (4) new loss of viable myocardium or regional wall motion abnormality by imaging; (5) identification of intracoronary thrombus by angiography or autopsy.

The third global MI task force maintains that the electrocardiogram (ECG) is an integral part of the diagnostic work-up in patients with suspected MI and should be obtained and interpreted in a timely manner.2 It also advocates the use of serial recordings Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to detect dynamic ECG changes, and it adopts ECG criteria similar to the 2007 expert consensus document for the diagnosis of acute myocardial injury/ischemia and prior MI (criteria pertaining to the ST-segment shift and Q waves/QS complexes, respectively).2 Additionally, the third global MI task force summarizes through the ECG abnormalities that mimic myocardial ischemia or MI (e.g., left bundle branch block, pre-excitation). It also includes brief discussions on the utility of various imaging modalities and highlights their improved capabilities in assessing myocardial thickness, wall motion, perfusion, and fibrosis.2 This task force updated the universal classification of MI with a few notable modifications (Table 1).2 Type 1 MI is spontaneous MI induced by plaque disruption (e.g., rupture, erosion, fissuring) with overlying coronary thrombosis.

2C) Because basal and apical rotation differently responded acco

2C). Because basal and apical rotation differently responded according to the severity of aortic stiffness, the increase in basal-to-apical twist was attenuated in the 19 patients with PWV > 1700 cm/s. In the remaining 51 patients with PWV ≤ 1700 cm/s, PWV significantly correlated with both apical rotation (r = 0.461, p < 0.001) and basal-to-apical twist (r = 0.488, p < Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 0.001) (Fig. 2B). E/E' ratio was related to old age (r = 0.582, p < 0.001),

high systolic blood pressure (r = 0.246, p = 0.040), wide pulse pressure (r = 0.33, p = 0.001) and large LV mass index (r = 0.387, p = 0.001). In addition, E/E’ ratio was associated with the reduced longitudinal ε (r = 0.329, p = 0.005), systolic longitudinal SRE Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (r = 0.440, p < 0.001), diastolic longitudinal SRE (r = -0.401, p < 0.001) and basal-to-apical twist (β = -0.208, p = 0.030). Intra- and interobserver variabilities were 7 ± 5%

and 10 ± 7% in longitudinal ε. Those of radial and circumferential ε were 12 ± 9% and 13 ± 11%, and, 11 ± 8% and 13 ± 9%, respectively. In basal-to-apical twist, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical intra- and interobserver variability were measured as 8 ± 6% and 11 ± 8%. Discussion The major Epigenetic Reader Domain inhibitor findings of this study are: 1) PWV significantly correlated with echocardiographic parameters of abnormal myocardial relaxation and high LV filling pressure; 2) PWV also correlated with the indicators of regional myocardial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical function, including global longitudinal ε and early diastolic SRE; 3) Although there were positive correlations between PWV and basal rotation and basal-to-apical twist, the increase in the

apical rotation and basal-to apical twist, was attenuated in patients with PWV > 1700 cm/s. Vascular stiffening causes arterial pulse pressure to widen and affects mechanical vascular stimulation by Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical increasing pulsatile shear and pressure. Chronic vascular stiffness increases the speed and magnitude of reflected waves, amplifying late systolic pressure and, thus, systolic load on the LV. This chronic vascular alteration is coupled with an increase in ventricular end-systolic stiffness.1-3) Although chronic systolic ventricular-arterial coupling maintains stroke work, it also predisposes to adverse effects including a high sensitivity found to change in volume, change in myocardial perfusion patterns and reduction in systolic reserve.9),10) These adverse effects are thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of heart failure in patients with normal EF.4) Because heart ejecting into a stiffer arterial system generates the higher end-systolic pressure for the net stroke volume, the greater energy may be required for a given level of ejected flow.11) As a result, chronic ejection into a stiffer vasculature induces structural and functional changes in myocardium, even at the similar level of mean arterial pressure.

However, the clinical picture was not typical for this abnormalit

However, the clinical picture was not typical for this abnormality. A second possibility was that these abnormalities were secondary to valproate-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The valproic acid was discontinued, and all parameters normalized after 1 week. At that point, we felt that it was safe to initiate the KD, which led to some decrease in seizure frequency for several months, making it possible for us to at least taper the vigabatrin dose. The obvious lessons learned from this child are: always rule out the rare contraindications before initiating the diet, even when

the clinical presentation does not MK-8776 purchase support the presence of a contraindication. Biochemical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical changes induced by intake of valproic acid can mimic those of a mitochondrial disorder,13 thus, awareness of potential effects of it as well as of other AEDs that are already in use is critical. In this case, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical although the metabolic abnormalities were valproic-acid-related, they did not allow for the use of the KD before they had been excluded by withdrawal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the medication. SPECIFIC CONDITIONS TREATABLE WITH THE KD

The KD has been found to be the most appropriate treatment for glucose transporter 1 deficiency and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.1,11 Other epileptic conditions, including tuberous sclerosis complex, Rett syndrome, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (Dravet syndrome), and specific mitochondrial disorders, also respond to the diet.14 One study noted a 40%–50% seizure-free response Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical rate in patients with myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome), which is higher than values reported for AEDs.15 Another report suggested that the KD may be Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical more effective than AEDs for Lennox–Gastaut syndrome, and the authors recommended that it be considered for

early use in affected patients.16 In terms of seizure type, success appears to be lower in patients with complex partial seizures1,12 or epileptiform discharges in the temporal region.12 Neal et al.17 reported that there was no significant difference in the efficacy of the treatment between symptomatic generalized or symptomatic focal syndromes. In their study, the mean percentage of baseline seizures was significantly lower in the diet however group than in the controls after 3 months (P < 0.0001). Specifically, 38% of the subjects in the diet group had a >50% seizure reduction compared with 6% of the controls (P < 0.0001), and 7% in the diet group had a >90% seizure reduction compared with 0% of the controls (P = 0.0582).17 The conclusion of Keene’s review was that, overall, the estimated rate for obtaining complete seizure control was 15.6% and that one-third of the studies reported a >50% reduction in the number of seizures.

In males, ectopic ureters are more commonly found in a kidney wi

In males, ectopic ureters are more commonly found in a kidney with a single collecting system. In females, they are more commonly associated with a duplex system and often present early with urinary incontinence. The most common location for an ectopic ureter in males is the prostatic urethra. Ectopic ureters are rarely found in the setting of C646 prostate cancer; the current case is only the third reported in the literature. Preoperative imaging can help detect asymptomatic congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical enabling appropriate surgical planning. However, given the rarity of such anomalies and the expense of the imaging, imaging solely for the purpose

of screening for congenital abnormalities is not justifiable in this setting.
The 23rd Annual Congress of the European Association of Urology offered an array of more than 1000 posters and 42 videos on several themes. Major topics regarding prostate cancer included basic research, prognostic factors, surgical

and functional outcome, and management Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of postoperative urinary leakage Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and erectile dysfunction. Important new research was presented on diagnosis, prognostic factors, therapeutic modalities, T3 tumor, and surgical approaches for carcinoma of the prostate. Diagnosis and Prognostic Factors An interesting contribution by Herwig and colleagues1 was the analysis of immunologic reactions of the monocytic lineage in prostate cancer. Understanding of the immunologic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical response to tumors, especially with respect to the monocyte/macrophage (CD14+) lineage, is largely speculative. For the first time, an elevation of blood macrophages in prostate cancer patients compared with healthy controls, as well as in accordance with tumor load, could be shown. Similar reactions of these cell populations could be observed in acute sepsis; the elevation of activated cells seems to be the most significant. Further distinction

of these cells may lead to a better stratification of patients with prostate cancer. Anagnostou and coworkers2 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical evaluated the outcome of first repeat biopsy performed with a modified Vienna Nomogram Scheme. Results showed that if the modified Vienna Nomogram Scheme is used in repeat biopsy, cancer is detected at significant rates and is usually of median Gleason sum and CYTH4 located laterally in the peripheral zone. Repeat biopsy can improve cancer detection if the transition zone and suspicious areas are sampled in addition to the original scheme. The need for pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with low-risk prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy is a controversial subject. Heidenreich and associates3 presented a study in which they tried to identify preoperative prognostic risk factors associated with lymph node metastases. A total of 499 men with low-risk prostate cancer according to the D’Amico criteria underwent radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymphadenectomy.

Protection against seizures The anticonvulsant activity of diazep

Protection against seizures The anticonvulsant activity of diazepam, assessed by its protection against pentylcneterazole-induced tonic convulsions, was reduced in α1(H101R) mice compared with wild-type animals.45 Sodium phénobarbital remained fully effective as anticonvulsant in α1(H101R) mice. These results show that the anticonvulsant activity of benzodiazepines is partially, but not fully mediated by α1-GABAA receptors. The anticonvulsant action of Zolpidem is exclusively mediated by α1-GABAA receptors, since its anticonvulsant action is completely absent in 1(H101R) mice.“48 see more Anxiolysis New strategies

for the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical development of daytime anxiolytics that are devoid of drowsiness and sedation are of high priority. Experimentally, the anxiolytic-like Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical activity of diazepam can be assessed by exposing wild-type animals to naturally aversive stimuli. For instance, in an elevated plus-maze test, the time spent on an open arm is enhanced after diazepam treatment, as is the time spent in the lit area of a light/dark choice test. In contrast, mice with a benzodiazepine-insensitive α2-GABAA receptor (α2(H101R)) were resistant to the effect of diazepam in these Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical test paradigms.46 Thus, the anxiolytic-like

action of diazepam is attributed to the modulation of α2-GABAA receptors. They are highly specific targets for the development of future Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical selective anxiolytic drugs. The α2GABAA receptors, which comprise only about 15% of all diazepam-sensitive GABAA receptors, are mainly expressed in the amygdala and in principal cells of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus with particularly high densities on their axon initial segments.50,51 Thus, the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical inhibition of the output of these principal neurons appears to be a major mechanism of anxiolysis. It had previously been assumed that the anxiolytic action of diazepam is based on the dampening of the reticular activating system. It is mainly represented by noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons of the

brain stem, which express exclusively α3-GABAA receptors. The analysis of the α3-point-mutated mice (α3(H126R)) indicated that the anxiolytic effect of benzodiazepine drugs, measured as described above, is not mediated by else α3-GABAA receptors.46 The reticular activating system therefore does not appear to be a major contributor to anxiolysis. The role of α3-GABAA receptors remains to be identified. Myorelaxation The muscle relaxant effect of diazepam is largely mediated by α2-GABAA receptors, as shown by the failure of diazepam to induce changes in muscle tone in the α2point-mutated mouse line.52 In addition to the areas described above, α2-GABAA receptors are expressed in the spinal cord, notably in the superficial layer of the dorsal horn and in motor neurons,53 the latter being most likely implicated in muscle relaxation.