Am J Kidney Dis 2000;36:1034–40 PubMed 7 Mignon F, Méry JP, Mou

Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;36:1034–40.PubMed 7. Mignon F, Méry JP, Mougenot B, Ronco P, Roland J, Morel-Maroger L. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Adv Nephrol Necker Hosp. 1984;13:219–45.PubMed 8. Viero RM, Cavallo T. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Hum Pathol. 1995;26:1347–53.PubMedCrossRef

9. Bijol V, Mendez GP, Nosé V, Rennke HG. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis: a clinicopathologic study of 46 cases from a single institution. Int J Surg Pathol. 2006;14:57–63.PubMedCrossRef 10. Joss N, Morris S, Young B, Geddes C. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2:222–30.PubMedCrossRef Kinase Inhibitor Library 11. Bocquet H, Bagot M, Roujeau JC. Drug-induced pseudolymphoma and drug hypersensitivity syndrome (drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms: DRESS). Semin Cutan Med Surg. 1996;15:250–7.PubMedCrossRef 12. Kano Y, Hiraharas K, Sakuma K, Shiohara T. Several herpesviruses can reactivate in a severe drug-induced multiorgan reaction in the same sequential order as in graft-versus-host disease. Br J Dermatol. 2006;155:301–6.PubMedCrossRef 13. Shiohara T, Kurata M, Mizukawa Y, Kano Y. Recognition of immune reconstitution syndrome necessary for better management of patients with severe drug eruptions and those under immunosuppressive

ZIETDFMK therapy. Allergol Int. 2010;59:333–43.PubMedCrossRef 14. Kano Y, Inaoka M, Shiohara T. selleck screening library Association between anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome and human herpesvirus 6 reactivation and hypogammaglobulinemia. Arch Dermatol. 2004;140:183–8.PubMedCrossRef Sinomenine 15. Moreno-Ancillo A, Cosmes

Martín PM, Domínguez-Noche C, Martín-Núñez G, Fernández-Galán MA, López-López R, et al. Carbamazepine induced transient monoclonal gammopathy and immunodeficiency. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2004;32:86–8.CrossRef 16. Młodzikowska-Albrecht J, Steinborn B, Zarowski M. Cytokines, epilepsy and epileptic drugs–is there a mutual influence? Pharmacol Rep. 2007;59:129–38.PubMed 17. Ang CC, Wang YS, Yoosuff EL, Tay YK. Retrospective analysis of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome: a study of 27 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63:219–27.PubMedCrossRef 18. Fernando SL, Henderson CJ, O’Connor KS. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with superficial granulomatous dermatitis—a novel finding. Am J Dermatopathol. 2009;31:611–3.PubMedCrossRef 19. Tohyama M, Hashimoto K, Yasukawa M, Kimura H, Horikawa T, Nakajima K, et al. Association of human herpesvirus 6 reactivation with the flaring and severity of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:934–40.PubMedCrossRef 20. Oskay T, Karademir A, Ertürk OI. Association of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome with Herpesvirus 6, 7. Epilepsy Res. 2006;70:27–40.PubMedCrossRef”
“Introduction Based on the annual report of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT), diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure in Japan [1].

Louis, MO) Bacterial

Louis, MO). Bacterial BB-94 Necrostatin-1 ic50 strains L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strain AA100jm [39] is a spontaneous streptomycin-resistant mutant of strain 130b, which is virulent in guinea pigs, macrophages, and amoebae. The avirulent

dotO mutant was constructed by random transposon mutagenesis, as described previously [39]. This mutation results in severe defects in intracellular growth and evasion of the endocytic pathway [40]. The Corby flaA mutant derived from the wild-type Corby is defective in flagellin [41]. L. pneumophila strains were grown at 35°C in a humidified incubator on either buffered charcoal-yeast extract-agar medium supplemented with α-ketoglutarate (BCYE-α) or in buffered yeast extract broth supplemented with α-ketoglutarate (BYE-α). The flaA mutant was grown in an environment similar to those used for other VX-680 mw strains, but in the presence of 20 μg/ml kanamycin. Heat-killed bacteria were prepared by heating the bacterial suspension at 56°C for 30 min or at 100°C for 1 h. Bacterial inactivation was achieved by treatment with paraformaldehyde (4%, 15 min followed by three washes in phosphate-buffered saline; PBS). Both types of treated suspensions were confirmed to contain no viable bacteria by plating them on BCYE-α agar. Cell culture Human T cells (Jurkat) were

maintained in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100 U/ml penicillin G, and 100 μg/ml streptomycin. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were Florfenicol isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors using Ficoll-Hypaque gradients. PBMC were then further purified using positive selection with immunomagnetic beads specific for CD4 (Miltenyi Biotec, Auburn,

CA). On the day of the experiment, cells were refed with fresh antibiotic-free medium and cocultured with L. pneumophila for the time intervals indicated below. Infection of T cells and intracellular growth kinetics experiments Jurkat or CD4+ T cells seeded in plates were inoculated with either AA100jm or dotO mutant and either Corby or flaA mutant at an MOI of 100. In some experiments, heat-killed or paraformaldehyde-fixed bacteria were inoculated in the same manner. At 2 h after infection, cells were centrifuged and the supernatant was discarded. Cells were washed three times with PBS and resuspended in fresh RPMI 1640 medium containing 100 μg/ml gentamycin for 2 h. The cells were washed three times again with PBS and were further incubated with fresh medium. The infected cells and supernatant in each well were harvested at the indicated time intervals by washing the wells three times with sterilized distilled water. These bacterial suspensions were diluted in sterilized water and plated in known volume onto BCYE-α agar. The numbers of CFU in infected cells were counted at the indicated time points after infection.

Medscape J Med 2008, 10: 130 PubMed

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52. Herbein G, O’Brien WA: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and TNF receptors in viral pathogenesis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 2000, 223: 241–257.CrossRefPubMed 53. Kakumu S, Okumura A, Ishikawa T, Yano M, Enomoto A, Nishimura H: Serum levels of IL-10, IL-15 and soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) receptors in type C chronic liver disease. Clin Exp Immunol 1997, 109: 458–463.CrossRefPubMed 54. Kallinowski

B, Haseroth K, Marinos G, Hanck C, Stremmel W, Theilmann L: Induction of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor type p55 and p75 in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Clin Exp Immunol 1998, 111: 269–277.CrossRefPubMed 55. Parasole R, Izzo F, Perrone F, Pignata S, Galati MG, Leonardi E, Castiglione F, Orlando R, Castello G, Esposito G, Gallo C, Daniele B: Prognostic value of serum biological markers in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2001, 7: 3504–3509.PubMed 56. Izzo F, Curley S, Maio P, Leonardi E, Imparato Idasanutlin L, Giglio S, Cremona F, Castello G: Correlation of soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels with severity of chronic hepatitis C virus liver injury and development of hepatocellular Cell press cancer. Surgery 1996, 120: 100–105.CrossRefPubMed 57. Priimägi L, Tefanova V, Tallo T, Schmidt E: The role of serum Th1 and Th2 cytokines in patients with chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection. Acta Medica Lituanica 2005, 12: 28–31. 58. Sawayama Y, Hayashi J, Kawakami Y, Furusyo N, Ariyama I, Kishihara Y, Ueno

K, Kashiwagi S: Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels before and during interferon treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Dig Dis Sci 1999, 44: 163–169.CrossRefPubMed 59. Kitaoka S, Shiota G, Kawasaki H: Serum levels of interleukin-10, interleukin-12 and soluble interleukin-2 receptor in chronic liver disease type C. Hepatogastroenterology 2003, 53: 1569–1574. 60. Morshed SA, Fukuma H, Kimura Y, Watanabe S, Nishioka M: Interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-2 receptor expressions in hepatitis C virus-infected liver. Gastroenterol Jpn 1993, 28 (Suppl 5) : 59–66.CrossRefPubMed 61. Khabar KS, Al-Zoghaibi F, Al-Ahdal MN, Murayama T, Dhalla M, Mukaida N, Taha M, Al-Sedairy ST, Siddiqui Y, Kessie G, Matsushima K: The alpha chemokine, interleukin 8, inhibits the antiviral action of interferon alpha. J Exp Med 1997, 186: 1077–1085.CrossRefPubMed 62.

As Figure 1 showed, cell viability was not influenced within 10 h

As Figure 1 showed, cell viability was not influenced within 10 hours. Incubated with 12 and 14 hours, Caco-2 cell viability showed significant decrease. As a result, we co-cultured Caco-2 cells and Lactobacillus plantarum for 10 hours in the following experiments. Figure 1 Approximately 1 × 10 5 cells

were plated onto 96-well plates for 24 h, followed by treatment with live/ heat-killed L. plantarum MYL26 ( L. plantarum MYL31/ MYL68 data not shown) and different cellular parts for 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 hours. Symbol * represents P-value smaller than 0.05 analyzed by t-test in comparison with negative selleck chemicals llc control group. (n = 3). Negative control: Caco-2 Erismodegib price cells were not treated with probiotics. Lactobacillus plantarum attenuates LPS-induced cytokine secretion Three different strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (MYL26, MYL31 and MYL68) were tested and the most potent strain, in terms of refractoriness to subsequent LPS stimulation, was selected. As shown in Figure 2, L. plantarum MYL26 attenuated TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12 production more effectively than those of other strains. Figure 2 Caco-2 cells (10 6 cells/mL) were treated with live L. plantarum MYL26/ MYL31/ MYL68 CP-690550 nmr (10 7   cfu/mL) at 37°C for 10 hours, followed by 1 μg/mL LPS challenge. Negative control: Caco-2 cells

were not treated with LPS and probiotics. (Cytokine secretion baseline). Lactobacillus plantarum MYL26 attenuates downstream signal transduction of TLR4-NFκB pathway The results of RT-qPCR (Figure 3) indicated that there are no significant differences in the expressions of TLR4, MyD88 and IRAK1 in comparison with those of LPS treatment group. The expressions of TRAF6, TAK1 and IKKβ decreased more significantly

under L. plantarum MYL26 treatment than those under LPS treatment alone. Figure 3 Caco-2 cells (10 6 cells/mL) were treated with live L. plantarum MYL26 (10 7   cfu/mL) at 37°C for 10 hours followed by 1 μg/mL LPS challenge. Gene expressions Reverse transcriptase were assayed by RT-qPCT normalized by GAPDH. Symbol * represents P-value smaller than 0.05 analyzed by t-test in comparison with negative control group. (n = 3). Negative control: Caco-2 cells were challenged by LPS without pretreatment with probiotics. Lactobacillus plantarum MYL26 pretreatment elicits anti-inflammatory properties by enhancing the expressions of TOLLIP, SOCS1 and SOCS Since TRAF6, TAK1 and IKKβ were down-regulated, five potential negative regulator gene expressions were examined. As shown in Figure 4, there were no considerable differences in the expressions of IRAK3 and SHIP1 while the expressions of TOLLIP, SOCS1 and SOCS3 were higher than those in the control groups. Figure 4 Caco-2 cells (10 6 cells/mL) were treated with live L. plantarum MYL26 (10 7   cfu/mL) at 37°C for 10 hours.

Mycol Res 111:748–757CrossRefPubMed Price MJ, Worth GK (1974) The

Mycol Res 111:748–757CrossRefPubMed Price MJ, Worth GK (1974) The occurrence of ergosta-4, 6, 8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one in several fungi. Aust J Chem 27:2505–2507CrossRef Raistrick H, Smith G (1941) Antibacterial substances from mould. I. Citrinin, a metabolic product of Penicillium citrinum Thom. Chem Ind 6:828–830

Ramirez C (1982) Manual and atlas of the Penicillia. Elsevier Biomedical, New York Raper KB, Thom C (1949) Manual of the Penicillia. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore Reynolds DR, Taylor JW (1991) Nucleic acids and nomenclature: name stability under Article 59, 171–177. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Improving the stability of names: needs and options. Regnum Veg. 123. Koelte Scientific Books, Köningstein, Germany Sakai K, Kinoshita H, Shimizu T, Nihira T (2008) Construction of a citrinin gene cluster expression

system in heterologous Repotrectinib ic50 Aspergillus CBL0137 clinical trial oryzae. J Biosci Bioeng 106:466–472CrossRefPubMed Samson RA, Frisvad JC (2004) Penicillium subgenus Penicillium: new taxonomic schemes and mycotoxins and other extrolites. Stud Mycol 49:1–266CrossRef Samson RA, Hoekstra ES, Frisvad JC (2004) Introduction to food- and airborne fungi, 7th edn. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht Samson RA, Houbraken J, Varga J, Frisvad JC (2009) Polyphasic taxonomy of the heat resistant ascomycete genus Byssochlamys and its Paecilomyces anamorphs. Persoonia 22:14–27PubMed Sasaki M, Tsuda M, Sekiguchi M, Mikami Y, Kobayashi J (2005) Perinadine

A, a Carnitine dehydrogenase novel tetracyclic alkaloid from marine-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum. Org Lett 7:4261–4264CrossRefPubMed Smedsgaard J (1997) Micro-scale extraction procedure for standardized screening of fungal metabolite production in cultures. J Chromatogr A 760:264–270CrossRefPubMed Smith G (1963) Some new species of Penicillium, and some observations on the taxonomy of the genus. Trans Br Mycol Soc 46:331–337CrossRef Stolk AC, Samson RA (1983) The ascomycete genus Eupenicillium and related Penicillium anamorphs. Stud Mycol 23:1–149 Størmer FC, Sandven P, Huitfeldt HS, Eduard W, Skogstad A (1998) Does the mycotoxin citrinin function as a sun protectant in conidia from Penicillium verrucosum. Mycopathologia 142:43–47CrossRefPubMed Taira T, Yamatodani S (1947) Biochemistry of Penicillium group. II. Determination of citrinin. J Penicillin 1:275 Takahashi S, Kakinuma N, Iwai H, Yanagisawa T, Nagai K, Suzuki K, Tokunaga T, Nakagawa A (2000) Quinolactacins A, B and C: novel quinoline compounds from Penicillium sp. EPF-6. II. Physico-chemical properties and structure elucidation. J Antibiot 53:1252–1256PubMed Tejesvi MV, Kini KR, Prakash HS, Subbiah V, Shetty HS (2007) Genetic diversity and antifungal activity of species of Pestalotiopsis isolated as endophytes from medicinal plants. Fungal Divers 24:37–54 Thom C (1910) Cultural studies of species of Penicillium.

J Clin Microbiol 2005,43(2):740–744 PubMedCrossRef 4 Schroeder G

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of Shigella enterotoxins 1 and 2 among Shigella strains isolated from patients with traveler’s diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol 1999,37(11):3608–3611.PubMed 7. Rajakumar K, Sasakawa C, Adler B: Use of a novel approach, termed island probing, identifies Selleck Crenigacestat the Shigella flexneri she pathogenicity island which encodes a homolog

of the immunoglobulin A protease-like family of proteins. Infect Immun 1997,65(11):4606–4614.PubMed 8. Okuda J, Toyotome T, Kataoka N, Ohno M, Abe H, Shimura Y, Seyedarabi A, Pickersgill R, Sasakawa C: Shigella effector IpaH9.8 binds to a splicing factor U2AF(35) to modulate host immune responses. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005,333(2):531–539.PubMedCrossRef 9. Toyotome T, Suzuki T, Kuwae A, Nonaka T, Fukuda H, Imajoh-Ohmi S, Toyofuku T, Hori M, Sasakawa C: Shigella protein IpaH(9.8) is secreted from bacteria within mammalian cells and transported to the nucleus. J Biol Chem 2001,276(34):32071–32079.PubMedCrossRef 10. Fernandez-Prada CM, Hoover DL, Tall BD, Hartman AB, Kopelowitz J, Venkatesan MM: Shigella flexneri IpaH(7.8) facilitates escape of virulent bacteria from the endocytic vacuoles of mouse and human macrophages. Infect Immun 2000,68(6):3608–3619.PubMedCrossRef 11. Rohde JR, Breitkreutz A, Chenal A, Sansonetti PJ, p38 MAPK inhibitor Parsot C: Type III secretion effectors of the IpaH family are E3 ubiquitin ligases. Cell Host Microbe 2007,1(1):77–83.PubMedCrossRef 12. Sansonetti PJ, Kopecko DJ, Formal SB: Involvement of a plasmid in the invasive ability of Shigella

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Phase transition of nanoparticle deposits upon heating The SR-XRD

Phase transition of nanoparticle deposits upon heating The SR-XRD patterns of NP deposits measured from 25°C to 250°C are illustrated in Figure 3. It is apparent that broad and weak (111) diffractions appeared at low temperatures due to the size-broadening effect. Taking the Au GSK1120212 ic50 NPs as example, the quantitative data shown in Figure 4 depict that when the NPs were heated to a critical temperature, the intensity (the maximum peak amplitude)

of the broad peak skyrocketed dramatically, and after that, it increased gradually. Figure 4 also illustrates the peak width (full width at half maximum, FWHM) and thus grain size calculated using Scherrer equation given below [31]. Figure 3 The evolution of (111) diffraction peak of the NP deposits with respect to heating temperature. (a) Au, (b) Au3Ag, (c) AuAg (d) AuAg3, and (e) Ag (the X-ray wavelength λ = 1.5498 Å). Figure 4 The intensity, width and calculated grain size of Au(111) peaks with respect to heating temperature. (Based on the data

obtained from Figure 3a). (1) where D is the grain size, λ is the wavelength of the X-ray, β is the full width at half maximum, and θ is the angle corresponding to the peak. It can be found that the variation in peak width is just opposite to the tendency of increasing intensity. The critical temperature for particle coalescence can be defined as the temperature for the sudden increase in peak intensity, which represents the linking of nanoparticles and a high degree of crystallization [23, 24, 32, 33]. As also indicated in Figure 4, grain growth occurs right after the coalescence of NPs. The coalescence temperature of NP deposits with varying Au/Ag molar ratio are listed in Figure 5. For each sample, the variation in the coalescence temperature was 10 ~ 15°C. The average data show that the coalescence temperature decreased

when the Ag content increased from 0 at% (the Au sample, 160°C) to 50 at% (the AuAg sample, 120°C). After that, the coalescence temperature rose and reached 150°C for the Edoxaban samples of 100 at% Ag (the Ag sample, 150°C). This implies that the coalescence temperatures for alloy nanoparticle deposits were significantly lower than those for pure metals. In addition, with respect to the Ag deposits with a small difference in particle size, the coalescence temperatures did not differ too much. The average values are 153.3°C for bigger Ag NPs (10.7-nm diameter in average) and 146.5°C for those with a smaller size (8.2-nm diameter in average). It was also found that the diffractions tended to shift selleck towards low angles due to thermal expansion. The difference in the lattic constants among the deposits was large at room temperature but was reduced significantly when heated to 250°C (Figure 6a). The lattice constants calculated from the diffraction angles for the as-prepared NP deposits and those after being heated to 250°C are illustrated in Figure 6b.

GG, heat-killed L GG or its conditioned

GG, heat-killed L.GG or its conditioned medium preserve the intestinal epithelial barrier, after disruption with gliadin? c) what are their effects on the TJ protein expression? The role of cellular polyamines as a requisite for L.GG action on the expression of TJ proteins was also investigated. As in vitro model of CD the Caco-2 cell line was used. This line is formed by intestinal epithelial cells obtained from human colon adenocarcinoma, that, before confluence, mimics the physiological enterocytes, and provides an important and widely used tool for studying and obtaining greater insight into the molecular and cellular

mechanisms of CD alterations in epithelial cells [21]. Methods Cell culture conditions Human colon adenocarcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells were obtained from the Interlab Cell Line Collection (IST, Genoa, Italy). Cells were routinely cultured

in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with LY411575 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 2 mM glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin, Epacadostat 100 μg/ml streptomycin, in a monolayer culture, and incubated at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2 in air. At confluence, the grown cells were harvested by means of trypsinization and serially subcultured with a 1:4 split ratio. All cell culture components were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Milan, Italy). Bacterial strain As probiotic, the Lactobacillus Defactinib molecular weight rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (commercially named Lactobacillus GG, L.GG, obtained from the American Type Culture Collection ATCC, Manassas, VA USA) was tested in our set of experiments. L.GG was cultured at 37°C for 24 h under anaerobic conditions in Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broth; the incubate was centrifuged (300 × g for 10 min) at room temperature and the learn more precipitate was collected and washed twice with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4. The bacteria were then re-suspended in RPMI-1640 medium in order to give a bacterial concentration of 108 CFU/ml (as determined by

colony counts). Heat-treatment of L.GG was performed by heating at 95°C for 1 h. Bacterial conditioned medium (CM) was collected by centrifugating the incubate at 300 × g for 10 min. The supernatant (conditioned medium) was filtered through a 0.22 μm low-protein-binding filter (Millex; Millipore, Bedford, MA) to sterilize and remove all bacterial cells. Aliquots of L.GG-CM were stored in sterile microcentrifuge tubes at −20°C until use. Caco-2 cells were treated with LGG-CM as a 10% volume of the total incubation cell medium. Gliadin and L.GG treatments Caco-2 cells (25th-30th passage) were seeded at a density of 2 × 105 cells/5 ml of supplemented RPMI-1640 in 60 mm tissue culture dishes (Corning Costar Co., Milan, Italy). After 24 h, to allow for attachment, the medium was removed and RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% FBS and 2 mM glutamine, containing viable L.GG (108 CFU/ml), L.GG-heat killed (L.GG-HK), L.GG-CM were added to cells for 6 h.

Whole blood was obtained from corresponding HCC patients and cont

Whole blood was obtained from corresponding HCC patients and controls except in one case without an available blood sample in the alcohol-HCC group. Mitochondria isolation and mtDNA extraction were carried out using the Blood Mitochondrial DNA Extraction Kit (Genmed Scientific Inc.). All mtDNA was stored at -20°C. Table 1 Clinical data in HBV-HCC, alcohol-HCC patients and controls   HBV-HCC (n = 49) Alcohol-HCC (n = 11) Control (n = 38) Age (years) 52.20 ± 9.86 58.36 ± 8.11 53.08 ± 10.98 Sex (M/F) 43/6 10/1 18/20 selleck Child-Pugh Grade SIS3 mw (B/A) 2/47 0/11 – Alcohol abuse 1 11 0 Positive HBV surface antigen 49 0 0 Positive HBV anti-surface

antibody 0 0 0 Tumor stage (I/II/III) 13/36/0 2/5/3a – aOne alcohol-HCC patient did not have sufficient tissues for

stage classification. PCR amplification and sequence analysis The forward primer 5′-CCCCATGCTTACAAGCAAGT-3′ (nucleotide 16190-16209) and reverse primer 5′-GCTTTGAGGAGGTAAGCTAC-3′ (nucleotide 602-583) were used for amplification of a 982 bp product from mtDNA D-Loop region as described previously [27]. PCR was performed according to the protocol of PCR Master Mix Kit (Promega, Madison, WI) and purified prior to sequencing. Cycle sequencing was carried out with the Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Reaction Kit (Applied Biosystem, Navitoclax Foster City, CA) and the products were then separated on the ABIPRISM Genetic Analyzer 3100 (Applied Biosystem). Mutations and polymorphisms were confirmed by repeated analyses from both strands. SNPs were identified directly from blood mitochondria. Statistical analysis Paired and unpaired Student’s t-test were used as appropriate to determine the differences SNP distribution within the D-Loop region and the number of SNPs per patient among groups. Fisher’s exact test and chi-square were used accordingly

to analyze dichotomous values, such as presence or absence of an individual SNP in each patient group. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to determine statistical differences among age, sex and Child-Pugh grade. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium AMP deaminase between SNPs was done using GENEPOP http://​wbiomed.​curtin.​edu.​au/​genepop Results SNPs in reference to GenBank accession AC_000021 were detected in 92 sites of the 982-bp mitochondria D-Loop region from blood samples. The minor allele frequency ranged from 1.0% (1/98) to 46.90 (46/98). Of these, 13 SNPs (16A/T, 44C/CC, 56A/G, 245T/C, 275G/A, 310T/G, 368A/G, 449T/C, 454T/C, 570C/G, 16259C/G, 16267C/G, and 16445T/C) were new, as they were not reported in a mitochondria database http://​www.​mitomap.​org. SNP numbers ranged from 3 to 13 for individuals, no statistical difference for SNP numbers in each individual referring to sex was observed.

Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed enhanced expression of s-CLU strict

Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed enhanced expression of s-CLU strictly correlated to

mRNA expression in both KF-TX and SKOV-3-TX cells when compared with their parental cell lines (Figure 2C). Table 4 List of ovarian cancer cells and their IC50 for TX in a three days treatment experiment. Histological type Cell line IC50 (TX; nM) Serous KF 100 Serous KF-TX 500 Serous SKOV-3 20 Serous SKOV-3-TX 100 Serous OVK18 50 Clear cell TU-OC-1 6900 Clear cell KOC-7c 6700 Figure 2 S-CLU is up-regulated in the chemo-resistant cells: A. Western blotting analysis of CLU in a panel of ovarian cancer cells. Equal amount of proteins were loaded, resolved by SDS-PAGE and immunoprobed with anti-CLU mAb. S-CLU was found in the cells and media. Some ovarian cancer cells

express relatively high levels of CLU in comparison to immortalized non tumorigenic ovarian epithelial OSE cells. B. Chemo-resistant KF-TX cells shows higher expression levels of CLU compared to parental KF cells. A similar result is found in SKOV-3 compared to SKOV-3-TX cells. C. Quantitative PCR showing the difference in CLU transcript level between the TX-sensitive and TX-resistant clones in both KF (left) and Skov-3 (right) systems. To investigate whether upregulation of s-CLU expression is a cause or a result of TX-induced resistance, both parental KF and KF-TX cells were treated with TX in a dose dependent fashion for 6 h. Sensitive KF cells rapidly responded by increasing s-CLU expression level under low doses of TX. In this experiment cellular viability mainly decreased HDAC inhibitor when TX dose surpassed IC50. KF-TX cells already PD184352 (CI-1040) expressing higher CLU levels, did not further express CLU following TX treatment (Figure

3A). When we treated cells with TX up to 48 h, KF parental cells progressively increased CLU expression levels up to IC50 doses (100 nM) then CLU was down-regulated at higher doses. On the other hand, CLU expression level (already high) did not change in KF-TX cells. Again, only at doses higher than IC50 (500 nM), CLU was down-regulated (Figure 3B). S-CLU detected in cells’ medium progressively decreased up to IC50 doses in the sensitive cells suggesting its retention inside cells. However, secretion of CLU into the media by resistant cells clearly extended up to higher concentration of TX if compared with parental cells. Considering that changes in CLU expression seem independent of CLU mRNA, which did not change significantly as indicated by real-time PCR (data not shown), these results suggest that post-translational modification of CLU, including maturation and secretion, may be altered in response to TX treatment. Figure 3 Induction of CLU in a time and dose dependent fashion by TX. A. Western analysis showing s-CLU expression after 6 h treatment with TX. Induction of s-CLU is evident in chemo-sensitive KF cells when treated with high doses of TX but not in KF-TX, in which the high levels of s-CLU remained unchanged.