The fluorescence of the fluorescamine-treated proteins (Fig  1) i

The fluorescence of the fluorescamine-treated proteins (Fig. 1) indicated the modification of 14 lysines in JBU-Lys, out of a total of 49 found in JBU, and of 22 acidic residues in JBU-Ac, from a total of 99 found in the native protein. Similar numbers of modified residues were detected after two independent modification assays for each derivatized protein. In order to analyze the effect of lysine and acidic residues modification on the ureolytic activity of JBU, the kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax and Kcat) of native and derivatized JBU were calculated ( Supplementary Table 1).

No significant alterations of these parameters were observed for both modified proteins, in comparison to the native JBU. As previously described (Follmer et al., 2004), JBU is highly toxic to the cotton stainer bug D. peruvianus, Palbociclib datasheet GSK2118436 cost with a LD50 value of 0.017% (w/w) of protein added to the cotton meal, when administrated in feeding trials. Here, we have used both native and the two derivatized JBU to verify the effect of the modifications upon the insecticidal activity. Both chemical modifications affected the entomotoxic activity of JBU,

drastically reducing this effect ( Fig. 2). After 17 days, the survival rate for JBU-fed groups was reduced to 18% of the control group, while JBU-Lys and JBU-Ac-fed groups survival rates were 46% and 58%, respectively ( Fig. 2, inset). There was no statistical difference between the lethalities observed for JBU-Ac and JBU-Lys when compared to each other. It was previously demonstrated that an essential step for the entomotoxic Calpain effects of plant ureases is their hydrolysis by insects’ digestive enzymes, releasing toxic peptides (Carlini et al., 1997; Defferrari et al., 2011; Ferreira-DaSilva et al., 2000; Piovesan et al., 2008). The in vitro digestion of JBU with D. peruvianus enzymes resulted in the release of several fragments from the protein, including peptide(s) in the 10 kDa range, as expected ( Fig. 3, lane 2). When the derivatized

proteins were subjected to the same digestion process, JBU-Lys showed no alteration in the pattern of the released fragments ( Fig. 3, lane 4) when compared to the native protein. In contrast, JBU-Ac was resistant to hydrolysis by the gut homogenate, thus preventing the release of the toxic peptide(s) ( Fig. 3, lane 6). Analysis of the location of the entomotoxic peptide (Jaburetox) within JBU sequence showed two aspartic acid residues flanking this region (Fig. 4). The three dimensional structure of the trimeric JBU revealed that Asp-229 (at the N-terminal of Jaburetox) is localized at the protein surface and therefore is potentially susceptible to chemical modification (Supplementary Fig. 1).

Through this review of the literature, the authors developed a li

Through this review of the literature, the authors developed a list of inputs that are likely to contribute to successful MPA outcomes and incorporated these into a framework (Table 1). The proposed framework consists of a series of questions that correspond with indicators for governance, management and local development inputs. The potential utility of the inputs framework is threefold. First, it might provide governors and managers with a list of best practices or recommendations to lay the groundwork for creating more successful MPAs. Governors and managers could refer to the framework during the design and implementation

phases of individual sites or entire systems of MPAs. Second, it could serve as a monitoring and evaluation tool for examining whether, and to what extent, the recommended inputs require attention in individual sites or in entire systems of MPAs. Using either a semi-structured interview questionnaire, a series of triangulated qualitative interviews, or focus-group discussions with stakeholders representing different groups (e.g., government, natural and social scientists, NGOs,

community representatives, fishers), each indicator in the framework might be explored in a qualitative manner or assigned a quantitative value. For a quantitative Dinaciclib ic50 approach, the authors suggest using a similar rating method to that used by Timko and Satterfield [219]. Indicators might be rated on a scale from 0 to 4, where 0=very unsatisfactory, 1=unsatisfactory, 2=neutral, 3=satisfactory, and 4=very satisfactory based on individual interviews with various stakeholder groups. Mean scores could be calculated for each indicator as well as for each group to show which factors needed to be addressed. One of the benefits of this approach is that it would allow for comparisons among different sites, among different systems of MPAs or among different stakeholder groups׳ perceptions on each indicator. Repeated quantitative application

of the framework would also allow changes to be easily tracked over time. Some indicators may not be applicable or not appropriate (n/a) in a particular context and could be excluded. Third, the framework might be used to advocate for improved MPA practice by taking a scorecard approach—for example, through Mirabegron calculating likelihood of success scores. An overall score for each category – i.e., governance, management, local development – for an MPA could be calculated using the formula below. equation(1) Categoryscore=SumofindicatorscoresforcategoryTotalpossiblescoreforcategory(numberofindicatorsused×4)×100 This formula will calculate a percentage (%) out of 100 for each category—which might be assigned values as follows: 0–25%=very unlikely to succeed; 25–50%=unlikely to succeed; 50–75%=likely to succeed; 75–100%=highly likely to succeed.

This provided

level 1 evidence and confirmation of previo

This provided

level 1 evidence and confirmation of previous non-randomized trials of CT screening [2], [3], [4] and [5] that reported more detection of early stage disease and prolonged survival. The fact that we now know that screening and early detection saves lives from lung cancer is in many ways only the start of the process of developing Anti-diabetic Compound Library a cost effective early detection program. A screening program based only upon CT as demonstrated by the NLST study has numerous problems, including a high number of benign nodules identified (i.e., false positives; e.g., 96.4% of the positive results in the NLST study were benign) [1], [2], [6] and [7], the lingering question of what to do after 3 annual screens, and the fact that only ∼30% of all lung cancer patients would meet the NLST entry criteria (i.e., 55–74 years of age, ≥30 pack-years smoking history, and if an ex-smoker, must have quit within the last 15 years) [1]. One recent publication from a single US center focused on patients presenting with early stage lung cancers and aimed to address the question of the percentage of patients with early stage lung cancer who fulfilled the NLST criteria. Based on 267 patients with early stage disease, less than half met the NLST high risk criteria. Since the majority of these patients were not considered high-risk by the NLST criteria, they would not be covered under current screening paradigms [8]. It therefore

seems that a requirement for Selleck Afatinib an effective early detection program would be a biological test that would increase the pre-test probability of lung cancer in a high risk population – the pre-test probability

being based either on demographic factors (e.g., age and smoking history), imaging findings (e.g., lung nodules) or both. A biological test that is performed on a peripheral blood sample would have clear advantages, including patient Ixazomib compliance, convenience and cost savings. EarlyCDT-Lung is a blood test that measures autoantibodies to lung cancer-associated antigens. It was developed to aid physicians in the early detection of lung cancer in a high-risk population. EarlyCDT-Lung was introduced clinically in a limited manner; as part of the limited release of the test a clinical audit program was established for individuals who gave consent for follow-up in accordance with the HIPAA Privacy Rule. The primary purpose of the audit was to confirm that the characteristics of the test, as reported in the training and validation case–control studies, were reproducible in routine clinical practice. This manuscript reports clinical outcomes at 6 months following EarlyCDT-Lung for the first ∼1600 patients whose physicians ordered the test and where the patient gave informed consent to be part of the audit program. The first 1699 patients for whom US physicians ordered EarlyCDT®-Lung are described here. The tests were ordered by 810 unique physicians in 720 different practices throughout 48 US states.

Complex Problems and generative learning: for AI, presentation of

Complex Problems and generative learning: for AI, presentation of the 15–20 min video stories, was followed

by a rather open problem statement in form of a real-life goal. Students were supposed to find (“generate”) themselves the intermediate, science (or other discipline) related questions to be solved for this goal, and the entire instructional Epigenetics Compound Library screening setting (long story, embedded data, multistep problems, generative learning) leads to a rather high complexity. While this indeed is close to many real-life problem settings, it entails considerable, at a given learning level maybe hardly surmountable difficulties. In terms of instructional psychology, there is a dilemma of complexity vs. cognitive load, which cannot be decided a priori, but requires empirical investigation. For this purpose, complexity must be variable, necessitating a flexible, easy-to-change learning anchor (such as NSP). In the present study, problems were less

complex than in AI (but still encompassing transfer and discussion, see the section on problem levels in “Materials and Methods”). This is close to current teaching practice, but the entire approach is also appropriate for studying variable degrees of complexity ( Kuhn, 2007, Kuhn, 2008, Kuhn and Müller, 2006 and Kuhn and Müller, 2007). Summing up, the approach presented here is Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) a form of CBSE based on work on narrative contexts and, regarding its design principles, more specifically inspired by Anchored Instruction. While most of the design features mentioned GSI-IX solubility dmso above are maintained, the video-based “anchors” of the original AI approach were of course deliberately

replaced by newspaper story problems. In line with existing research described in the preceding section, the following research questions were examined, beginning with two questions on general effects: first, whether science learning with newspaper story problems is more motivating than learning with content-identical, conventional counterparts. Second, whether it is also more effective for learning, and to which degree. Furthermore, whether these general beneficial effects also cover more specific aspects, closely connected to the theoretical background of the approach: third, whether perceived self-concept (as motivation sub-dimension) can be improved (because this is a feature of particular importance to CBSE in general, and NSP in particular). Fourth, whether the same is true for transfer ability (as learning sub-dimension, again essential for CBSE and, more generally, for scientific literacy). Finally, there are two questions which are important for practical implementation (a main objective of the present study), viz.

After washing whole blood and removal of plasma and buffy coat, i

After washing whole blood and removal of plasma and buffy coat, in most experiments RBC suspensions were placed in tonometers (Eschweiler, Kiel, Germany) at 20% haematocrit (Hct), to equilibrate Vorinostat cell line at the requisite O2 tension. Tonometers were flushed with warm, humidified gas mixtures, supplied at the appropriate O2 tension using a Wösthoff gas mixing pump [21]. For CLT, dissolved in DMSO, appropriate controls were all treated with the same concentration of solvent (< 0.1% final). To determine the activity of the K+ transport pathways, K+ influx

was usually measured at 37 °C using 86Rb+ as a congener for K+[22] and [23]. Cells were taken from the tonometers and diluted 10-fold into saline, pre-equilibrated at the appropriate O2 tension, at 260 mOsm kg −1 and pH 7, conditions chosen in order to stimulate the K+–Cl− cotransporter (KCC). 86Rb+ was added in 150 mM KNO3 to give a final [K+] of 7.5 mM in all experiments except those with HK saline and A23187-treated RBCs. After incubation with radioisotope for 10 min, RBCs were washed to remove extracellular 86Rb+, five-times in an ice-cold MgCl2 wash solution. For K+ efflux experiments,

RBCs were loaded overnight at 4 °C by addition of 86Rb+ after which cells were washed five times in an ice-cold wash solution. RBCs were then suspended at 2% haematocrit (Hct) in standard saline at 37 °C. Aliquots were taken at 5 min intervals for 30–60 min and spun through phthalate oil. The cell pellet was lysed with detergent, deproteinised with TCA, and counted by liquid scintillation Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor (cpm). A semilog plot (of cpm at time = t/cpm at time = 0) was used to determine the rate constant for K+ efflux. Except for experiments to measure Na+/K+ pump activity, ouabain (100 μM) and bumetanide (10 μM) were present in all experiments to obviate any K+ transport through the Na+/K+ pump and the Na+–K+–2Cl− cotransporter, respectively. Either microhaematocrit determination or the cyanohaemoglobin method was used to measure the final Hct. KCC activity

was assayed as Cl−-dependent K+ influx; Gardos channel activity as the CLT-sensitive (5 μM) K+ influx; Na+/K+ pump activity as the ouabain-sensitive (100 μM) K+ influx and Psickle as the deoxygenation-induced K+ influx measured in the absence of Cl−. For phosphatidylserine (PS) labelling, 5 μl aliquots (105 RBCs) of each sample were placed in 250 μl of LA-FITC binding buffer and incubated in the dark at room temperature for 10 min. RBCs were then pelleted by centrifugation for 10 s at 16,100 g, washed once in LK or HK HBS to remove unbound LA-FITC and kept on ice until flow cytometry analysis. Unlike annexin-V, LA-FITC binds to PS in a Ca2 +-independent manner and control experiments showed that binding was irreversible. Inhibitors were tested for self-fluorescence at their highest concentration with unlabelled RBCs.

, USA) After omitting several samples that lacked clear informat

, USA). After omitting several samples that lacked clear information about producing area, 195 samples from 12 producing areas (P1–P12) were eventually included in the two-step clustering analysis. Concentrations of major constituents as well as continuous variables and producing areas as categorical variables, two-step clustering analysis was run with the log-likelihood distance measure. The optimal number of clusters of producing areas was offered through Schwarz’s Bayesian Criterion (BIC). The clustering rationality was assessed by discriminant analysis [22]. Information on seeding date was provided by Institute of Crop Science,

Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (ICS, CAAS). The geographic coordinates (latitude, longitude and elevation) of the production regions were obtained from the Jinnong Web site ( The latitude and longitude values were converted see more into a decimal system as followed formula (Eq. 1): Decimal degrees = Degrees + minutes/60. The data was analyzed using Pearson coefficient with t-test of significance and mean were compared by independent-samples t-test. Kolmogorov–Smirnov method was applied for normality test. Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of the categorical variable in clustering analysis. Table 1 shows

the range, mean, and standard deviation of the concentrations of the different components in the sample set and Fig. 1 shows their distribution. Starch, oil and protein content fit a normal distribution (P > 0.05) while total polyphenol did not agreed (P < 0.01). Except for the relationship between protein and oil, the correlation among Methane monooxygenase the contents of majority of the constituents in faba bean was significant (P < 0.01, Table 2). Protein content was negatively correlated with starch content and total polyphenol content (P < 0.01). Starch content was negatively correlated with oil content (P < 0.01) and total polyphenol (positive, P < 0.01). Oil content had a negative correlation with total polyphenol content (P < 0.01). According to the results of chemical analysis, some faba bean varieties had higher

values of protein, starch, oil as well as lower content of total polyphenol e.g. 91–825 from Yunnan, H0005043 from Qinghai, and H0004355 from Anhui. H0004355 from Anhui contained the minimum content of total polyphenol. As a source of antioxidant material, H0005011 from Qinghai was considered the best choice because it had the highest content value of total polyphenol. NIR spectral patterns of the samples were similar across the whole NIR wavelength region 12,500–4000 cm− 1 (800–2500 nm) (Fig. 2) along the X-axis. While along the Y-axis, the changes of spectral intensities among different samples were clear. PLS regression models of the NIR data were built up on original calibration and validation sets at ratios of 4:1 to 5:1.

In conclusion, the A paulensis venom proteomic and pharmacologic

In conclusion, the A. paulensis venom proteomic and pharmacological profiling

was presented for the first time. By means of chromatography and mass spectrometry the venom compounds variability was showed, which featured 60 chromatographic fractions and 97 different components. Noteworthy are the low molecular mass compounds, such as 601.4 and 729.6 Da which are putative acylpolyamines, in addition to many peptide components, among Pictilisib which 60% are between 3500 and 7999 Da. LD50 was defined and is in accordance to the values reported for tarantula spiders, which generally do not provoke severe envenoming. Despite that, A. paulensis venom induced many behavioral and physiological changes in mice, and edematogenic activity in rats. An inotropic effect produced on frog heart is probably due to the low TGF-beta pathway molecular mass compounds present in the more hydrophilic fractions of venom that may act either by inducting the release of acetylcholine from parasympathetic terminals or by directly acting as a cholinergic agonist. Financial support: CNPq (303003/2009-0, 490068/2009-0, 564223/2010-7). CBFM and ACEC receive scholarship from CNPq, and CJA, HMD, JCG, JKAM and PG from CAPES. The authors acknowledge Rafael D. Melani and Karla G. Moreira for their assistance

on some bioassays, Dr Paulo César Motta for identifying the spiders, and Dr Carlos Bloch from Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, EMBRAPA, Brazil. “
“Amphibian skin is characterized by the presence of mucous glands mainly associated to respiration and protection against desiccation, while granular (or poison) glands provide an arsenal of chemical compounds used for defense against opportunistic microorganisms and predators (Clark, 1997; Duellman and Trueb, 1986; Stebbins and

Cohen, 1997; Toledo and Jared, 1993, 1995; Rollins-Smith et al., 2002, 2005). Under the Leukotriene-A4 hydrolase control of a holocryne mechanism (Simmaco et al., 1998), poison glands secrete a wide diversity of peptides, biogenic amines, steroids and alkaloids, all presenting a broad spectrum of biological activity (Auvymet et al., 2009; Bevins and Zasloff, 1990; Daly et al., 1987; Roseghini et al., 1989; Toledo and Jared, 1995; Van Zoggel et al., 2012). The family Hylidae (tree-frogs) is known to secrete polypeptide compounds, most of them with bioactive properties. Although the cutaneous secretions composition of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae is considered the most complex, it is well documented particularly for the genus Phyllomedusa ( Conlon et al., 2004; Erspamer et al., 1986, 1993; Faivovich et al., 2010). In fact, several species were studied and numerous peptides have been isolated based on their antimicrobial and analgesic activities.

If any process control failed the MBDA score specifications, all

If any process control failed the MBDA score specifications, all samples on the plates which contained the failed process control were repeated. For patient samples, the percent coefficient of variation (% CV) of the signals between the duplicate wells was calculated for each marker. If the % CV was above the biomarker specific

acceptability limit (typically 20%), the concentration reported for that sample was deemed unreliable and was retested. Microplates are read on the SECTOR Imager 6000 reader (MSD, Gaithersburg, MD), which uses an ultra-low noise charge-coupled device (CCD) camera with a custom-designed telecentric lenses to detect light emitted at ~ 620 nm upon electrochemical stimulation. Plate images are obtained in six sectors and data is subsequently acquisitioned into MSD Discovery Workbench Software. Paired serum and plasma samples were collected from RA subjects who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1987 criteria (Arnett et al., 1988). All samples were collected under Investigational Review Board approved protocols with informed consent. To collect samples, 32 individuals with RA had matched serum and plasma samples drawn with Serum Separator Transport (SST™) Tubes and EDTA Vacutainer tubes from Becton Dickinson Maraviroc cost (BD, Franklin Lakes, NJ), respectively, from the same needle stick. Both the serum and plasma tubes were processed per

manufacturer’s instructions, aliquots prepared, frozen and subsequently tested in the MBDA protein biomarker and autoantibody biomarker assays. To evaluate serum collection and handling variables, serum samples were collected from 10 individuals who were diagnosed with RA based on ACR 1987 criteria (Arnett et al., 1988). All samples were collected under Investigational Review Board approved protocols

with informed consent. Matched sets of BD SST™ were used to draw blood. One set of tubes from each individual was incubated at ambient temperature for 30–45 min Rucaparib solubility dmso and then centrifuged for 10 min at a 1000 to 1300 RCF (g) per manufacturer’s instructions. This was followed by overnight shipment in a temperature controlled (2–8 °C) package (“protocol”). A matched tube from each individual was simultaneously shipped overnight at ambient temperature while remaining on the clot (e.g. not centrifuged; “traditional”). Upon arrival, the traditional tube was centrifuged and all samples were aliquoted and frozen for analysis in the MBDA lower case protein biomarker and autoantibody biomarker immunoassays. The 10 matched sets of processed serum were run on two duplicate plates for each multiplexed panel (panels A, B, and C). Due to limited amount of samples available, only 7 matched sets were analyzed for autoantibody experiments. The autoantibody biomarkers were evaluated with custom assays using the MSD platform. Briefly, eight peptides (Table 1) were immobilized onto streptavidin MSD plates.

In agreement with our findings (Fig

1), the lack of an e

In agreement with our findings (Fig.

1), the lack of an effect of ghrelin on basal maintenance of Tb has been observed before [35]. Even though ghrelin-treated rats showed no change in basal PGE2 production, it seems that these animals are likely to produce relatively less PGE2 in their brains in response to LPS ( Fig. 3 and Fig. 5). Still in relation to the combined effects of LPS and ghrelin the present data are consistent with the notion that an enhanced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to LPS occurs when ghrelin is administered ( Fig. 2 and Fig. 5). Albeit this enhanced axis activation has been suggested to be linked to a suppressed COX activation/PGE2 Staurosporine chemical structure production by means of the well known anti-inflammatory effect of corticosterone [6] and [30], this is unlikely to be the mechanism of action of ghrelin modulating LPS-induced fever because of the already mentioned lack of correlation

( Fig. 4 and Fig. 5). Neurochemical mechanisms modulating immune challenge events have become a topic of immense interest over recent years. It is worth noting that recent reports have described the intimate interaction between cells of the nervous and immune systems that takes place in the gut, Dasatinib and may have a role in diverse inflammatory disorders [2] and [19]. The present study reports the effect of the gut-derived peptide ghrelin on the mechanisms underlying immune-inflammatory modulation of the febrile response. Our results shed light on the new role of ghrelin in the regulation of inflammation, indicating an

anti-inflammatory effect (at least, predominantly), which corroborates a recent study [18]. More specifically, we observed an immunosuppressive effect of ghrelin during endotoxemia. As described in Fig. 5, alterations to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis following LPS exposure appear to be up-modulated by ghrelin, whereas preoptic PGE2 production seems to be down-modulated by ghrelin. Both the effects of ghrelin favor a reduced Tb ( Fig. 5). Moreover, the effect of ghrelin on PGE2 production seems not to be mediated by the increased glucocorticoids plasma levels ( Fig. 4) but rather due to a direct effect of the peptide. We thank Mauro Ferreira Silva for excellent technical assistance, and Guillermo Andrey Ariza Traslaviña for assisting in running Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase correlation analysis. This study was supported by Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento de Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Brazil. “
“The venous system plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis since it contains about 65% of the total blood volume [25]. The capacitance properties of the cardiovascular system are primarily determined by veins and venules [24]. Alterations in venous tonus induced by hormones, peptides or drugs influence directly the cardiac output, right atrial pressure, and, therefore, cardiac performance [32] and [37].

2) using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)

2) using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Protein Database. The search parameters were as follows: no restrictions on protein molecular mass, one missed tryptic cleavage allowed, mass tolerance to peptide of 0.2 Da for MS spectra. Carbamide-methylation due to treatment of sulfhydryls with iodoacetamide and oxidation of methionine were specified in MASCOT as fixed and variable modifications, respectively. The Pp-Hyal-specific antibody was prepared in the Experimental Immunology and Allergy Laboratory-LIAE, Medical Clinic Department, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil. A total of 12 Balb/c female mice at approximately 30-days-of age and a

weight of 25 g were used in the experiments. From the Pp-Hyal purified sample obtained by ion exchange liquid chromatography, 1 mg of total proteins were separated by 15% SDS-PAGE. As only one 39 kDa band was visualized in Selleck GDC0199 R428 nmr the gel, it was cut out, macerated, diluted in sterile physiological solution and applied to the backs of six mice (approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Utilization-CEUA-No. 031/2010) to produce the Pp-Hyal-specific antibody. Immunizations were done on day 7, 21, and 28, and on day 30, the animals were sacrificed and the antibody collected. Six mice were used as controls, receiving applications of polyacrylamide

gel free of proteins that had been macerated and diluted as described above. Following SDS-PAGE, venom proteins were transferred to a nitrocellulose

membrane (0.45 μ) at 0.8 mA/cm² and 60 V for 2 h in a semi-dry system (New Blot Multiphor II unit, Biotech Pharmacy). Transfer efficiency was confirmed by staining the gel with Coomassie Blue G-250. Immunodetection was performed with the Pp-Hyal-specific antibody diluted 1:1000 and anti-mouse IgG, alkaline phosphatase conjugate (Sigma–Aldrich, USA) diluted Depsipeptide 1:5000 (2 μL in 10 mL of blocking solution) as the primary and secondary antibodies, respectively. Bands were visualized with alkaline phosphatase/BCIP®/NBT (Sigma–Aldrich, USA). The complete cDNA sequence of Pp-Hyal was determined after sequencing 11 positive clones. A 1315 bp consensus cDNA sequence (GI: 302201582) showed the highest similarity with Hyal from the venoms of the four endemic wasp species of the Northern hemisphere: 90% similarity with P. annularis, 81% with V. vulgaris, Vespula germanica, Vespa magnific, and 80% with Dolichovespula maculata. The primary sequence of the deduced Pp-Hyal mature protein ( Fig. 1) contained 338 amino acid residues (1017 bp) and was rich in the amino acids Asn, Gln, and Lys, with a theoretical pI of 8.77 and a predicted molecular mass of 39,648.8 Da versus the 43,277.0 Da indicated by MS. Fig. 1 shows the location of the forward and reverse primers, the three potentially immunogenic N-glycosylated sites (Asn79, Asn187, and Asn325) and the two disulfide bridges (Cys19–Cys308 and Cys185–Cys197) responsible for stabilization of protein structure.