coli NfsB protein, suggesting that this gene encoded a nitroreduc

coli NfsB protein, suggesting that this gene encoded a nitroreductase. The amino acid sequence of the gonococcal homolog was used to probe the GenBank database, and ORFs that possessed significant similarity to it were identified.

The data presented in Figure 2 is an alignment of proteins that possessed significant similarity to the gonococcal nfsB homolog. All of these proteins have nitroreductase activity. Figure 2 Sequence similarities of nitroreductases. The amino acid sequence encoding various nitroreductases were aligned. Identical residues are highlighted in black, and conserved substitutions are highlighted in grey. The sequences represent (Bacterium, Genebank identification number): Escherichia coli NP_415110.1, N. gonorrhoeae FA1090, NC002946; Haemophilus Selleckchem Emricasan influenzae, Q57431; Bacillus subtilis; O34475; Helicobacter pylori, NP459570; and Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. C58, NP534964. DNA sequence analysis of nfsB from various gonococcal strains The nfsB DNA sequence for N. gonorrhoeae strains F62, FA19, MS11, and PID2 was determined by sequencing PCR products amplified from their respective chromosomes. Sequence data were derived from multiple independent amplicons. The data indicated that the DNA sequence was highly conserved as all sequences obtained

were identical to the nfsB DNA sequence of FA1090, with the exception of strain PID2. This strain possessed a single nucleotide polymorphism (using the adenine of the start codon as base one, at base 575 from the start codon, this base is a guanine in FA1090 and a cytosine in PID2) that would result in an amino acid substitution

in NfsB at residue 192 (a glycine in FA1090 and an alanine in PID2). see more Since these proteins were essentially identical, it suggests that the variability in spontaneous mutation frequencies observed in these strains could reflect different DNA repair capacities for the various strains. Nitroreductase activity in N. gonorrhoeae A spectrophotometric assay was performed to measure nitroreductase activity in GC. Lysates from wild type and Evodiamine nitrofurantoin resistant mutants were assayed for nitroreductase activity using a spectrophotometric assay that detects the loss of the substrate, nitrofurazone, using a method adapted from Whiteway et al. [24]. The data (Fig. 3) show that we were able to detect nitroreductase activity from strain FA1090, but that a spontaneous nitrofurantoin-resistant mutant (FA1090(M1)) lacked any detectable nitroreductase activity. Figure 3 Nitroreductase activity in N. gonorrhoeae strains. Cell sonicates were tested for their ability to produce a loss of absorbance at 400 nm, indicating a reduction of nitrofurazone by an active nitroreductase. The symbols represent: FA1090 (□); FA1090 extract lacking NADPH (□); and FA1090(M1), an nfsB mutant of FA1090 (□). Samples measured every 30 sec for 10 min. The data represents the average of 7 separate experiments with the error bars representing the standard error.

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